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Editor's Preface VII— XII 

Extract from the Author's preface (1891) 1 

Extract from the Preface to the last edition 5 

T'hapter I. — General review of orchestral groups 

A. String-ed instruments 6 

B. Wind instruments: 

Wood-wind 12 

Brass 21 

C. Instruments of little sustaining power: 

Plucked strings 26 

Pizzicato 27 

Harp 27 

Percussion instruments producing determinate sounds, keyed 

Kettle-drums , , 29 

Piano and Celesta 30 

Glockenspiel, Bells, Xylophone 32 

Percussion instruments producing indefinite sounds 32 

Comparison of resonance in orchestral groups, and combination 33 

of different tone qualities 

Chapter II. — Melody 

Melody in stringed instruments 36 

Grouping in unison 39 

Stringed instruments doubling in octaves 40 

Melody in double octaves 44 

«4 Doubling in three and four octaves 45 

fX Melody in thirds and sixths 45 

Melody in the wood-wind 46 

~"^ Combination in unison 47 

Combination in octaves 49 

Doubling in two, three and foiir octaves 51 

Melody in thirds and sixths 52 

Thirds and sixths together 53 

Melody in the brass 53 

'^ Brass in unison, in octaves, thirds and sixths ....... 55 



Melody in different groups of instruments combined together . 56 

A. Combination of wind and brass in unison 56 

B. Combination of wind and brass in octaves 57 

C. Combination of strings and wind 58 

D. Combination of strings and brass 61 

E. Combination of the three groups 61 

Chapter 111. — Harmony 

General observations 63 

Number of harmonic parts — Duplication 64 

Distribution of notes in chords 67 

String harmony 69 

Wood-wind harmony 71 

Four-part and three-part harmony 72 

Harmony in several parts 76 

Duplication of timbres 77 

Remarks 78 

Harmony in the brass 82 

Four-part writing 82 

Three-part writing 84 

Writing in several parts 84 

Duplication in the brass 85 

Harmony in combined groups 88 

A. Combination of wind and brass . . . . 88 

1. In unison 88 

2. Overlaying, crossing, enclosure of parts 90 

B. Combination of strings and wind 94 

C. Combination of the three groups 95 

Chapter IV. — Composition of the orchestra 

Different ways of orchestrating the same music 97 

Full Tutu 101 

Tutti in the wind 103 

Tuiti pizzicato 103 

Tutti in one, two and three parts 104 

Soli in the strings 104 

Limits of orchestral range 106 

Transference of passages and phrases 107 

Chords of different tone quality used alternately 108 

Amplification and elimination of tone qualities 109 

Repetition of phrases, imitation, echo 110 

Sforzando-piano and piano- sf or zando chords HI 

Method of emphasising certain notes and chords Ill 

Crescendo and diminuendo 112 

Diverging and converging progressions 113 

Tone quality as a harmonic force. Harmonic basis 114 

Artificial effects 116 

Use of percussion instruments for rhythm and colour .... 117 

Economy in orchestral colour 118 


Chapter V. — Combination of the human voice with orchestra. 
The Stage band 

Orchestral accompaniment of solo voices 119 

General remarks 119 

Transparence of accompaniment. Harmony 120 

Doubling voices in the orchestra 122 

Recitative and declamation 125 

Orchestral accompaniment of the chorus 126 

Solo voice with chorus 128 

Instruments on the stage and in the wings 129 

Chapter VI (Supplementary) — Voices 

Technical terms 132 

Soloists 133 

Range and register 133 

Vocalisation 134 

Vowels 136 

Flexibility 137 

Colour and character of voices 137 

Voices in combination 139 

Duet 139 

Trio, quartet etc 139 

Chorus 142 

Range and register 142 

Melody 144 

A. Mixed chorus 145 

Chorus, in unison 145 

Progression in octaves 145 

Voices divisi; harmonic use of the mixed chorus 146 

B. Men's chorus and Women's chorus 148 


Editor's Preface. 

Rimsky-Korsakov had long been engrossed in his treatise on 
orchestration. We have in our possession a thick note book of 
some 200 pages in fine hand writing, dating from the years 
1873—1874, containing a monograph on the question of acoustics, 
a classification of wind instruments and a detailed description of 
the construction and fingering of the different kinds of flute, the 
oboe, clarinet and horn. (1) 

In his "Memoirs of my musical life" (li* edition, p. 120) the 
following passage occurs: "1 had planned to devote all my energies 
to the compilation of a full treatise on orchestration. To this end 
I made several rough copies, jotting down explanatory notes detailing 
the technique of different instruments. What 1 intended to present to 
the world on this subject, was to include everything. The writing 
of this treatise, or, to be more exact, the sketch for it took up 
most of my time in the years 1873 and 1874. After reading the 
works of Tyndall and Helmholtz, 1 framed an introduction to my 
work, in which I endeavoured to expound the laws of acoustics 
as applied to the principles governing the construction of musical 
instruments. My manual was to begin with a detailed list of 
instruments, classified in groups and tabulated, including a de- 
scription of the various systems in use at the present day. I had 
not yet thought of the second part of the book which was to be 
devoted to instruments in combination. But 1 soon realised that 
I had gone too far. With wind instruments in particular, the 
different systems were innumerable, and each manufacturer favoured 
his own pet theory. By the addition of a certain key the maker 
endowed his instrument with the possibility of a new trill, and 

(I) This manuscript was gfiven to me by Alexander Glazounov; if a Rimsky- 
Korsakov museum is ever founded it will be placed there. 


made s^nic difficult passages more playable than on an instrument 
of another kind. * 

There was no end to such complications. In the brass, I found 
instruments with three, four, and five valves, the mechanism 
varying according to the make. Obviously, I could not hope to 
cover so large a field; besides, of What value would such a 
treatise be to the student? Such a mass of detailed description of 
the various systems, their advantages and drawbacks, could not 
but fail to confuse the reader only too eager to learn. Naturally he 
would wish to know what instrument to employ, the extent of its 
capabilities etc., and getting no satisfactory information he would 
throw my massive work aside. For these reasons my interest in 
the book gradually waned, and finally I gave up the task." 

In 1891 Rimsky-Korsakov, now an artist of standing, the com- 
poser of Snegourotchka, Mlada, and Sheherazade, a master of 
the orchestral technique he had been teaching for twenty years, 
returned to his handbook on instrumentation. He would seem to 
have made notes at different times from 1891 to 1893, during 
which period, after the first performance of Mlada, he gave up 
composition for a while. These notes, occasionally referred to 
in his Memoirs, are in three volumes of manuscript-paper. They 
contain the unfinished preface of 1891, a paragraph full of clear, 
thoughtful writing, and reprinted in this book. (1) 

As" the author tells us in his Memoirs (p. 297), the progress of 
his work was hampered by certain troublesome events which 
were happening at the time. Dissatisfied with his rough draft, he 
destroyed the greater part of it, and once more abandoned his task. 

In 1894 he composed The Christmas Night; this was the 
beginning of his most fertile period. He became entirely engrossed 
in composition, making plans for a fresh opera as soon as the 
one in hand was completed. It was not until 1905 that his 
thoughts returned to the treatise on orchestration, his musical 
output remaining in abeyance through no fault of his own. Since 
1891 the plan of the work had been entirely remodelled, as 
proved by the rough drafts still extant. The author had given up 
the idea of describing different instruments from their technical 

(1) This preface had already been published in his Notes and Articles on 
Music (St. Petersburgh, 1911). 


standpoint, and was more anxious to dwell upon the value of 
tone qualities and their various combinations. 

Among the author's papers several forms of the book have been 
found, each widely differing in detail from the other. At last, in 
the summer of 1905 Kimsky-Korsakov brought his plans to a 
head, and outlined the six chapters which form the foundation of 
the present volume. But the work suffered a further interruption, 
and the sketches were once more laid aside. In his Memoirs, 
Rimsky-Korsakov explains the fact by lack of interest in the work 
and a general feeling of weariness: "The treatise remained in 
abeyance. To start with, the form of the book was not a success, 
and I awaited the production of Kitesh, in order to give some 
examples from that work" (p. 360). 

Then came the autumn of 1906. The composer experienced 
another rush of creative energy; his opera. The Golden Cockerel 
made rapid strides, and kept him busy all that winter and the 
following summer. When it was finished, in the autumn of 1907, 
his thoughts reverted to the treatise on orchestration. But the 
work made little progress. The author had his doubts as to the 
adequacy of the plan he had adopted, and, in spite of the entreaties 
of his pupils and friends, he could not bring himself to broach 
the latter part of the book. Towards the end of 1907 Rimsky- 
Korsakov was constantly ailing in health, and this materially 
affected his energy. He spent the greater part of his time reading 
old notes and classifying examples. About the 20*li of May he 
set out for his summer residence in Lioubensk, and having just 
recovered from a third severe attack of inflammation of the lungs, 
began to work on the first chapter of the treatise in its present, 
final form. This chapter was finished on June 7/20, about 4 o'clock 
in the afternoon; the same night, the composer was seized with a 
fourth attack which proved fatal. 

The honour fell on me to prepare this last work of Rimsky- 
Korsakov for publication. Now that Principles of Orchestration 
has appeared in print I think it necessary to devote a few words 
to the essential features of the book, and to the labour imposed 
upon me in my capacity as editor. 

On the first point I will say but little. The reader will observe 
from the Contents that the work differs from others, not merely by 

reaston of its musical examples, but more especially in the systematic 
arrangement of material, not according to orchestral division in 
groups (the method adopted by Gevaert for instance), but accord- 
ing to each constituent of the musical whole, considered separately. 
The orchestration of melodic and harmonic elements (Chapters II 
and III) receives special attention, as does the question of orches- 
tration in general (Chapter IV). The last two chapters are devoted 
to operatic music, and the sixth takes a supplementary form, 
having no direct bearing on the previous matter. 

Rimsky-Korsakov altered the title of his book several times, and 
his final choice was never made. The title I have selected seems 
to me to be the one most suitable to the contents of the work, "prin- 
ciples" in the truest sense of the word. Some may expect to find 
the "secrets" of the great orchestrator disclosed; but, as he himself 
reminds us in his preface, "to orchestrate is to create, and this is 
something which cannot be taught." 

Yet, as invention, in all art, is closely allied to technique, this 
book may reveal much to the student of instrumentation. Rimsky- 
Korsakov has often repeated the axiom that good orchestration 
means proper handling of parts. The simple use of tone-colours 
and their combinations may also be taught, but there the science of 
instruction ends. From these standpoints the present book will 
furnish the pupil with nearly everything he requires. The author's 
death prevented him from discussing a few questions, amongst 
which I would include full polyphonic orchestration and the 
scoring of melodic and harmonic designs. But these questions 
can be partly solved by the principles laid down in Chapters II 
and III, and I have no wish to overcrowd the first edition of this 
book with extra matter which can be added later, if it is found 
to be necessary. I had first of all to prepare and amplify the 
sketches made by Rimsky-Korsakov in 1905; these form a connected 
summary throughout the whole six chapters. Chapter I was com- 
pleted by the author; it is published as it stands, save for a few 
unimportant alterations in style. As regards the other five chap- 
ters, I have tried to keep to the original drafts as far as possible, 
and have only made a few changes in the order, and one or two 
indispensable additions. The sketches made between 1891 and 
1893 were too disconnected to be of much use, but, in point 


of fact, they corresponded very closely to the final form of 
the work. 

The musical examples are of greater importance. According to 
the original scheme, as noted on the 1891 MS., they were to be 
drawn from the works of Glinka and Tschaikovsky; those of 
Borodin and Glazounov were to be added later. The idea of 
choosing examples solely from his own works only came to 
Rimsky-Korsakov by degrees. The reasons for this decision are 
partly explained in the unfinished preface of 1905, but other 
motives may be mentioned. If Rimsky-Korsakov had chosen his 
examples from the works of these four composers, he would have 
had to give some account of their individual, and often strongly 
marked peculiarities of style. This would have been a difficult 
undertaking, and then, how to justify the exclusion of West-Eu- 
ropean composers, Richard Wagner, for example, whose orches- 
tration Rimsky-Korsakov so greatly admired? Besides, the latter 
could hardly fail to realise that his own compositions afforded 
sufficient material to illustrate every conceivable manner of scoring, 
examples emanating frorfl one great general principle. This is not 
the place to criticise his method; RimsT^y-Korsakov's "school" is 
here displayed, each may examine it for himself. The brilliant, 
highly-coloured orchestration of Russian composers, and the scoring 
of the younger French musicians are largely dev^opments of the 
methods of Rimsky-Korsakov, who, in turn, looked upon Glinka 
as his spiritual father. 

The table of examples found among the author's papers was far 
from complete; some portions were badly explained, others, not at 
all. The composer had not mentioned which musical quotations 
were to be printed in the second volume, and which examples 
were to indicate the study of the full score, further, no limit was 
fixed to the length of quotation. All this was therefore left to the 
editor's discretion. I selected the examples only after much doubt 
and hesitation, finding it difficult tp keep to those stipulated by the 
composer, as every page of the fnaster's works abound in appro- 
priate instances of this or that method of scoring. 

I was guided by the following considerations which agreed 
with the opinions of the author himself: in the first place the 
examples should be as simple as possible, so as not to distract 


the student's attention from the point under discussion; secondly, 
it was necessary that one example should serve to illustrate several 
sections of the book, and lastly, the majority of quotations should be 
those mentioned by the author. These amount to 214, in the second 
volume; the remaining 98 were added by me. They are drawn, as far 
as possible, from Rimsky-Korsakov's dramatic music, since operatic 
full-scores are less accessible than those of symphonic works. 

At the end of Vol. II I have added three tables showing diffe- 
rent ways of scoring full chords; all my additions to the text are 
marked with asterisks. I consider that the careful study of the 
examples contained in the second volume will be of the greatest 
use to the student without replacing the need for the study of other 
composers' scores. Broadly speaking, the present work should 
be studied together with the reading of full scores in general. 

A few words remain to be said regarding Rimsky-Korsakov's 
intention to point out the faulty passages in his orchestral works, 
an intention expressed in his preface to the last edition. The 
composer often referred to the instructional value of such exami- 
nations. His purpose however was never achieved. It is not for me 
to select these examples, and 1 shall only mention two which were 
pointed out by the composer himself: 1. The Legend of Tsar Saltan 
71ii bar— the theme in the brass is not sufficiently prominent 


the trombones being tacet (a mistake easily rectified); 2. The 

Golden Cockerel 233 , bars 10 — 14, if the marks of expression are 
observed in the brass, the counter- melody on the violas and 
violoncellos doubled by the wood-wind will hardly be heard. 
Example 75 may also be mentioned, to which the note on page 63, 
in the text, refers. I will confine myself to these examples. 

In conclusion I desire to express my deep gratitude to Madame 
Rimsky-Korsakov for having entrusted me with the task of editing 
this work, thereby providing me with the opportunity of performing a 
duty sacred to the memory of a master, held so deeply in reverence. 

St. Peter sburgh, December 1912. 


Extract from the Author's Preface (1891). 

Our epoch, the post-Wagnerian age, is the age of brilliahce and 
imaginative quality in orchestral tone colouring. Berlioz, Glinka, 
Liszt, Wagner, modern french composers — Delibes, Bizet and 
others; those of the new russian school — Borodin, Balakirev, 
Glazounov and Tschaikovsky — have brought this side of musical 
art to its zenith; they have eclipsed, as colourists, their prede- 
cessors, Weber, Meyerbeer and Mendelssohn, to whose genius, 
nevertheless, they are indebted for their own progress. In writing 
this book my chief aim has been to provide the well-informed 
reader with the fundamental principles of modern orchestration 
from the standpoint of brilliance and imagination, and I have 
devoted considerable space to the study of tonal resonance and 
orchestral combination. 

1 have tried to show the student how to obtain a certain quality 
of tone, how to acquire uniformity of structure and requisite power. 
I have specified the character of certain melodic figures and 
designs peculiar to each instrument or orchestral group, and 
reduced these questions briefly and clearly to general principles; 
in short I have endeavoured to furnish the pupil with matter and 
material as carefully and minutely studied as possible. Never- 
theless I do not claim to instruct him as to how such information 
should be put to artistio use, nor to establish my examples in 
their rightful place in the poetic language of music. For, just as 
a handbook of harmony, counterpoint, or form presents the student 
with harmonic or polyphonic matter, principles of construction, 
formal arrangement, and sound technical methods, but will never 
endow him with the talent for composition, so a treatise on or- 
chestration can demonstrate how to produce a well-sounding chord 


— 2 — 

of certain tone-quality, uniformly distributed, how to detach a 
melody from its harmonic setting, correct progression of parts, 
and solve all such problems, but will never be able to teach the 
art of poetic orchestration. To orchestrate is to create, and this 
is something which cannot be taught. 

It is a great mistake to say: this composer scores well, or, that 
composition is well orchestrated, for orchestration is part of the 
very soul of the work. A work is thought out in terms of the 
orchestra, certain tone-colours being inseparable from it in the 
mind of its creator and native to it from the hour of its birth. 
Could the essence of Wagner's music be divorced from its orches- 
tration? One might as well say that a picture is well drawn in colours. 

More than one classical and modern composer has lacked the 
capacity to orchestrate with imagination and power; the secret of 
colour has remained outside the range of his creative faculty. 
Does it follow that these composers do not know how to orches- 
trate? Many among them have had -greater knowledge of the 
subject than the mere colourist. Was Brahms ignorant of orches- 
tration? And yet, nowhere in his works do we find evidence of 
brilliant tone or picturesque fancy. The truth is that his thoughts 
did not turn towards colour; his mind did not exact it. 

The power of subtle orchestration is a secret impossible to trans- 
mit, and the composer who possesses this secret should value it 
highly, and never debase it to the level of a mere collection of 
formulae learned by heart. 

Here I may mention the case of works scored by others from 
the composer's rough directions. He who undertakes such work 
should enter as deeply as he may into the spirit of the composer, 
try to realise his intentions, and develop them in all their essential 

Though one's own personality be subordinate to that of another, 
such orchestration is nevertheless creative work. But on the other 
hand, to score a composition never intended for the orchestra, is 
an undesirable practice. Many musicians have made this mistake 
and persist in it. (1) In any case this is the lowest form of in- 

(1) In the margin of the MS. a question mark is added here. 

(Editor's note.) 

— 3 — 

strumentation, akin to colour photography, though of course the 
process may be well or badly done. 

As regards orchestration it has been my good fortune to belong 
to a first-rate school, and I have acquired tha most varied ex- 
perience. In the first place I have had the opportunity of hearing 
all my works performed by the excellent orchestra of the St. Peters- 
burgh Opera. Secondly, having experienced leanings towards 
different directions, I have scored for orchestras of different sizes, 
beginning with simple combinations (my opera The May Night 
is written for natural horns and trumpets), and ending with the 
most advanced. In the third place, I conducted the choir of the 
Military Marine for several years and was therefore able to study 
wind-instruments. Finally I formed an orchestra of very young 
pupils, and succeeded in teaching them to play, quite competently, 
the works of Beethoven, Mendelssohn, Glinka, etc. All this has 
enabled me to present this work to the public as the result of 
long experience. 

As a starling-point I lay down the following fundamental axioms: 
I. In the orchestra there is no such thing _^as ugly quality of tone. 

II. Orchestral writing should be easy to play; a composer's 
work stands the best chance when the parts are well written. (1) 

III. A work should be written for the size of orchestra that is to 
perform it, not for some imaginary body, as many composers 
persist in doing, introducing brass instruments in unusual keys 
upon which the music is impracticable because it is not played 
in the key the composer intends. 

It is difficult to devise any method of learning orchestration 
without a master. As a general rule it is best to advance by 
degrees from the simplest scoring to the most complicated. 

The student will probably pass through the following phases: 1. the 
phase during which he puts his entire faith in percussion instru- 

(1) A. Glazounov has well expressed the various degrees of excellence in 
scoring-, which he divides into three classes: 1. When the orchestra sounds 
well, playing from sight; magnificent, after a few rehearsals. 2. When effects 
cannot be brought off except with the greatest care and attention on the part 
of conductor and players. 3. When the orchestra never sounds well. Evi- 
dently the chief aim in Orchestration is to obtain the first of these results. 

(Author's note.) 

— 4 — 

ments, believing that beauty of sound emanates entirely from this 
branch of the orchestra — this is the earliest stage; 2. the period 
when he acquires a passion for the harp, using it in every possible 
chord; 3. the stage during which he adores the wood-wind and 
horns, using stopped notes in conjunction with strings, muted or 
pizzicato; 4. the more advanced period, when he has come to 
recognise that the string group is the richest and most expressive 
of all. When the student works alone he must try to avoid the 
pitfalls of the first three phases. The best plan is to study full- 
scores, and listen to an orchestra, score in hand. But it is diffi- 
cult to decide what music should be studied and heard. Music 
of all ages, certainly, but, principally, that which is fairly modern. 
Fairly modern music will teach the student how to score — classical 
music will prove of negative value to him. Weber, Mendelssohn, 
Meyerbeer (The Prophet), Berlioz, Glinka, Wagner, Liszt, and 
modern French and Russian composers — these will prove his best 
guides. It is useless for a Berlioz or a Gevaert to quote examples 
from the works of Gluck. The musical idiom is too old-fashioned 
and strange to modern ears; such examples are of no further use 
today. The same may be said of Mozart and of Haydn (the father 
of modern orchestration). 

The gigantic figure of Beethoven stands apart. His music 
abounds in countless leonine leaps of orchestral imagination, but 
his technique, viewed in detail, remains much inferior to his 
titanic conception. His use of the trumpets, standing out above 
the rest of the orchestra, the difficult and unhappy intervals he 
gives to the horns, the distinctive features of the string parts and 
his often highly- coloured employment of the wood-wind,— these 
features will combine causing the student of Beethoven to stumble 
upon a thousand and one points in contradiction. 

It is a mistake to think that the beginner will light upon no simple 
and instructive examples in modern music, in that of Wagner and 
others. On the contrary, clearer, and better examples are to be 
found amongst modern composers than in what is called the 
range of classical music. 

— 5 — 
Extract from the Preface to the last edition. 

My aim in undertaking this work is to reveal the principles of 
modern orchestration in a somewhat different light than that 
usually brought to bear upon the subject. I have followed these 
principles in orchestrating my own works, and, wishing to impart 
some of my ideas to young composers, I have quoted examples 
from my own compositions, or given references to them, en- 
deavouring to show, in all sincerity, what is successful and what 
is not. No one can know except the author himself the purpose 
and motives which governed him during the composition of a 
certain work, and the practice of explaining the intentions of a 
composer, so prevalent amongst annotators, however reverent and 
discreet, appears to me far from satisfactory. They will attribute 
a too closely philosophic, or excessively poetic meaning to a plain 
and simple fact. Sometimes the respect which great composers' 
names command will cause inferior examples to be quoted as 
good; casfco of carelessness or ignorance, easily explained by the 
imperfections of current technique, give rise to whole pages of 
laborious exposition, in defence, or even in admiration of a faulty 

This book is written for those who have already studied instru- 
mentation from Gevaert's excellent treatise, or any other well-known 
manual, and who have some knowledge of a number of orches- 
tral scores. 

I shall therefore only just touch on such technical questions as 
fingering, range, emission of sound etc. (1) 

The present work deals with the combination of instruments in 
separate groups and in the entire orchestral scheme; the different 
means of producing strength of tone and unity of structure; the 
sub-division of parts; variety of colour and expression in scoring, 
— the whole, principally from the standpoint of dramatic music. 

(1) A short review of these various questions forms the first chapter of the 
book. (Editor's note.) 

Chapter 1. 


A. Stringed Instruments. 

The following is the formation of the string quartet and the 
number of players required in present day orchestras, either in the 
theatre or concert-room. 




Violins I . . . . 
» 11 ... . 


Violoncellos . . 
Double basses . . 






In larger orchestras, the number of first violins may amount to 
20 and even 24, the other strings being increased proportionately. 
Bat such a great quantity of strings over-powers the customary 
wood-wind section, and entails re-inforcing the latter. Sometimes 
orchestras contain less than 8 first violins; this is a mistake, as 
the balance between strings and wind is completely destroyed. 
In writing for the orchestra it is advisable to rely on a medium- 
sized body of strings. Played by a larger orchestra a work will 
be heard to greater advantage; played by a smaller one, the harm 
done will be minimised. 

— 7 — 

Whenever a group of strings is written for more than five 
parts — without taking double notes or chords fnto consideration — 
these parts may be increased by dividing each one into two, three 
and four sections, or even more (divisi). Generally, one or more 
of the principal parts is split up, the first or second violins, violas 
or violoncellos. The players are then divided by desks, numbers 1, 
3, 5 etc. playing the upper part, and 2, 4, 6 etc., the lower; or 
else the musician on the right-hand of each desk plays the top 
line, the one on the left the bottom line. Dividing by threes is 
less easy, as the number of players in one group is not always 
divisible by three, and hence the difficulty of obtaining proper 
balance. Nevertheless there are cases where the composer should 
not hesitate to employ this method of dividing the strings, leaving 
it to the conductor to ensure equality of tone. It is always as 
well to mark how the passage is to be divided in the score; 
Vni I, 1, 2, 3 desks, 6 'Cellos div. a 3, and so on. Division into 
four and more parts is rare, but may be used in piano passages, 
as it greatly reduces volume of tone in the group of strings. 

Note. In small orchestras passages sub-divided into many parts are very 
hard to realise, and the effect obtained is never the one required. 

String parts may be divided thus: 

'Cellos div. 
basses div. 

rVni I div. . (Vnill div. /Violas div. f'Ce 

^ I Vni II div. ^ I Violas div. ^ I 'Cellos div. ^ I D. 

Possible combinations less frequently used are: 

fVn^I div. rVnill div. f Violas div. 

^ I Violas div. ' I 'Cellos div. ^ I D. basses div. 

Note. It is evident that the tone quality in b and e will be similar. Still b 
is preferable since the number of Vni II (14 — 10 — 6) and Violas (12 — 8 — 4) 
is practically the same, the respective r61es of the two groups are more closely 
allied, and from the fact that second violins generally sit nearer to the violas 
than the first, thereby guaranteeing greater unity in power and execution. 

The reader will find all manner of divisions in the musical 
examples given in Vol. II. Where necessary, some explanation as 
to the method of dividing strings will follow in due course. I dwell 
on the subject here in order to show how the usual composition 
of the string quartet may be altered. 

— 8 — 

Stringed instruments possess more ways of producing sound than 
any other orchestral group. They can pass, better than other 
instruments from one shade of expression to another, the varieties 
being of an infinite number. Species of bowing such as legato, 
detached, staccato, spiccato, portamento, martellato, light staccato, 
saltando, attack at the nut and at the point, n n H and V V V (down 
bow and up bow), in every degree of tone, fortissimo, pianissimo, 
crescendo, diminuendo, sforzando, morendo — all this belongs to the 
natural realm of the string quartet. 

The fact that these instruments are capable of playing double 
notes and full chords across three and four strings — to say nothing 
of sub-division of parts — renders them not only melodic but also 
harmonic in character (1). 

From the point of view of activity and flexibility the violin 
takes pride of place among stringed instruments, then, in order, 
come the viola, 'cello and double bass. In jyactice the notes of 
extreme limit in the string quartet should be fixed as follows: 

for violins: (fe , for violas: ^ 


for 'cellos: V' , for double basses: ^ 

Higher notes given in Table A, should only be used with caution, 
that is to say when they are of long value, in tremolando, slow, 
flowing melodies, in not too rapid sequence of scales, and in 
passages of repeated notes. Skips should always be avoided. 

Note. In quick passages for stringed instruments long chromatic figures 
are never suitable; they are difficult to play and sound indistinct and muddled. 
Such passages are better allotted to the wood-wind. 

A limit should be set to the use of a high note on any one of 
the three lower strings on violins, violas and 'cellos. This note 
should be the one in the fourth position, either the octave note 
or the ninth of the open string. 

(1) To give a list of easy three and four-note chords, or to explain the different 
methods of bowing does not come within the scope of the present book. 

Nobility, warmth, and equality of tone from one end of the scale to 
the other are qualities common to all stringed instruments, and render 
them essentially superior to instruments of other groups. Further, 
each string has a distinctive character of its own, difficult to define 
in words. The top string on the violin (E) is brilliant in character, 
that of the viola (A) is more biting in quality and slightly nasal; 
the highest string on the 'cello (A) is bright and possesses a 
"chest-voice" timbre. The A and D strings on the violin and the 
D string on the violas and 'cellos are somewhat sweeter and 
weaker in tone than the others. Covered strings (G)y on the 
violin (G and C), on the viola and 'cello are rather harsh. Speak- 
ing generally, the double bass is equally resonant throughout, 
slightly duller on the two lower strings (E and A), and more 
penetrating on the upper ones (D and G). 

Note. Except in the case of pedal notes, the double bass rarely plays an 
independent part, usually moving- in octaves or in unison with the 'cellos, or else 
doubling the bassoons. The quality of the double bass tone is therefore seldom 
heard by itself and the character of its different strings is not so noticeable. 

The rare ability to connect sounds, or a series of sounds, the 
vibration of stopped strings combined with their above-named 
qualities — warmth and nobility of tone — renders this group of 
instruments far and away the best orchestral medium of melodic 
expression. At the same time, that portion of their range situated 
beyond the "limits of the human voice, e. g. notes on the violin 
higher than the extreme top note of the soprano voice, from 


upwards, and notes on the double bass below the range of the 
bass voice, descending from 

(written sound) 

lose in expression and warmth of tone. Open strings are clearer 
and more powerful but less expressive than stopped strings. 

Comparing the range of each stringed instrument with that of 
the human voice, we may assign: to the violin, the soprano and 

— 10 — 

contralto voice plus a much higher range; to the viola, the con- 
tralto and tenor voice plus a much higher register; to the 'cello, 
the tenor and bass voices plus a higher register; to the double 
bass, the bass voice plus a lower range. 

The use of harmonics, the mute, and some special devices in 
bowing produce great difference in the resonance and tone quality 
of all these instruments. 

Harmonics, frequently used to day, alter the timbre of a stringed 
instrument to a very appreciable extent. Cold and transparent in 
soft passages, cold and brilliant in loud ones, and offering but 
little chance for expression, they form no fundamental part of or- 
chestral writing, and are used simply for ornament. Owing to 
their lack of resonant power they should be used sparingly, and, 
when employed, should never be overpowered by other instruments. 
As a rule harmonics are employed on sustained notes, tremolando., 
or here and there for brilliant effects; they are rarely used in 
extremely simple melodies. Owing to a certain tonal affinity with 
the flute they may be said to form a kind of link between string 
and wood-wind instruments. 

Another radical change is effected by the use of mutes. When 
muted, the clear, singing tone of the strings becomes dull in soft 
passages, turns to a slight hiss or whistle in loud ones, and the 
volume of tone is always greatly reduced. 

The position of the bow on the string will affect the resonance 
of an instrument. Playing with the bow close to the bridge (sul 
ponticello), chiefly used tremolando, producer a metallic sound; 
playing on the finger-board (sul tasto, flautando) creates a dull, 
veiled effect. 

Note. Another absolutely different sound results from playing with the back 
or wood of the bow {col legno). This produces a sound like a xylophone or 
a hollow pizzicato. It is discussed under the heading of instruments of little 
sustaining power. 

The five sets of strings with number of players given above 
produce a fairly even balance of tone. If there is any sur- 
plus of strength it must be on the side of the first violins, 
as they must be heard distinctly on account of the important 
part they play in the harmonic scheme. Besides this, an extra 
desk of first violins is usual in all orchestras, and as a general 

11 — 





















































.E be 

So > 


— 12 — 

rule they possess a more powerful tone than second violins. 
The latter, with the violas, play a secondary part, and do not 
stand out so prominently. The 'cellos and double basses are 
heard more distinctly, and in the majority of cases form the bass 
in octaves. 

In conclusion it- may be said that the group of strings, as a 
ipelodic element, is able to perform all manner of passages, rapid 
and interrupted phrases of every description, diatonic or chromatic 
in character. Capable of sustaining notes without difficulty, of 
playing chords of three and four notes; adapted to the infinite 
variety of shades of expression, and easily divisible into numerous 
sundry parts, the string group in an orchestra may be considered 
as an harmonic element particularly rich in resource. 

B. Wind instruments. 

' Wood-wind. 

Apart from the varying number of players, the formation of the 
string group, with its five constituent parts remains constant, satis- 
fying the demands of any orchestral full score. On the other 
hand the group of wood-wind instruments varies both as regards 
number of parts and the volume of tone at its command, and here 
the composer may choose at will. The group may be divided into 
three general classes: wood-wind instruments in pair's, in three's 
and in four's, (see table on page 13). 

Arabic numerals denote the number of players on each instru- 
ment; roman figures, the parts (isl, 2^ etc.). Instruments which 
do not require additional players, but are taken over by one or the 
other executant in place of his usual instrument, are enclosed in 
brackets. As a rule the first flute, first oboe, first clarinet and first 
bassoon never change instruments; considering the importance of 
their parts it is not advisable for them to turn from one mouthpiece 
to another. The parts written for piccolo, bass flute, English horn, 
small clarinet, bass clarinet and double bassoon are taken by the 
second and third players in each group, who are more accustomed 
to using these instruments of a special nature. 

— 13 




in pair's 

in three's 

in four's 

(II — Piccolo). 

(III — Piccolo). 

1 Piccolo (IV). 

2 Flutes I. II. 

3 Flutes I. II. III. 

3 Flutes I. II. III. 

(II — Bass flute). 

(Ill — Bass flute). 

2 Oboes I. II. 

2 Oboes I. II. 

3 Oboes I. II. III. 

(II — Eng. horn). 

1 Eng. horn (III). 

1 Eng. horn (IV). 

(II — Small clarinet). 

(II — Small clarinet). 

2 Clarinets I. II. 

3 Clarinets I. II. III. 

3 Clarinets I. II. III. 

(II— Bass clarinet). 

(Ill — Bass clarinet). 

1 Bass Clarinet (IV). 

2 Bassoons I. II. 

2 Bassoons I. II. 

3 Bassoons I. II. III. 

1 Double bassoon (III). 

1 Double bassoon (IV). 

The formation of the first class may be altered by the perma- 
nent addition of a piccolo part. Sometimes a composer writes 
for two piccolos or two Eng. horns etc. without increasing the 
original number of players required (in three's or four's). 

Note I. Composers using the first class en the course of a big work (oratorio, 
opera, symphony, etc.) may introduce special instruments, called extras, for a 
long or short period of time; each of these instruments involves an extra player 
not required throughout the entire work. Meyerbeer was fond of doing this, 
but other composers. Glinka for example, refrain from increasing the number 
of performers by employing extras (Eng. horn part in Roussldn). Wagner uses 
all three classes in the above table (in pair's: Tanhduser — in three's: Tristan 
—in four's: Tfte Ring). 

Note II. Mlada is the only work of mine involving formation b^ four's. 
Ivan the Terrible, Sadko, The Legend of Tsar Saltan, The Legend of the 
Invisible City of Kitesh and The Golden Cockerel all belong to the second 
class, and in my other works, wood-wind in pair's is used with a varying 
number of extras. The Christmas Night, with its two oboes, and two bassoons, 
three flutes and three clarinets, forms an intermediate class. 

Considering the instruments it comprises, the string group offers 
a fair variety of colour, and contrast in compass, but this diver- 
sity of range and timbre is subtle and not easily discerned. In 
the wood-wind department, however, the difference in register 
and quality of flutes, oboes, clarinets and bassons is striking to a 
degree. As a rule, wood-wind instruments are less flexible than 

— 14 — 

strings; they lack the vitality and power, and are less capable of 
different shade of expression. 

In each wind instrument I have defined the scope of greatest 
expression, that is to say the range in which the instrument is 
best qualified to achieve the various grades of tone, {forte, piano, 
cresc, dim., sforzando, morendo, etc.)— the register which admits 
of the most expressive playing, in the truest sense of the word. 
Outside this range, a wind instrument is more notable for richness 
of colour than for expression. I am probably the originator of 
the term "scope of greatest expression". It does not apply to the 
piccolo and double bassoon which represent the two extremes of 
the orchestral compass. They do not possess such a register and 
belong to the body of highly-coloured but non-expressive instru- 

The four kinds of wind instruments: flutes, oboes, clarinets and 
bassoons may be generally considered to be of equal power. The 
same cannot be said of instruments which fulfil a special purpose: 
piccolo, ba^s flute, Eng. horn, small clarinet, bass clarinet and 
double bassoon. Each of these instruments has four registers: low, 
middle, high and extremely high, each of which is characterised 
by certain differences of quality and power. It is difficult to define 
the exact limits of each register; adjacent registers almost blend 
together and the passage from one to another is scarcely noticeable. 
But when the instrument jumps from one register to another the 
difference in power and quality of tone is very striking. 

The four families of wind instruments may be divided into 
two classes: a) instruments of nasal quality and dark resonance— 
oboes and bassoons (Eng. horn and double bassoon); and b) in- 
struments of "chest-voice" quality and bright tone — flutes and 
clarinets (piccolo, bass flute, small clarinet, bass clarinet). 

These characteristics of colour and resonance — expressed in 
too simple and rudimentary a form — are specially noticeable in 
the middle and upper registers. The lower register of the oboes 
and bassoons is thick and rough, yet still nasal in quality; the 
very high compass is shrill, hard and dry. The clear resonance 
of the flutes and clarinets acquires something nasal and dark in the 
lower compass; in the very high register it becomes somewhat 

Note to Table B. 

In the following Table B the top note in each register serves as the bottom note 
in the next, as the limits to each register are not defined absolutely. The note 
G fixes the register of flutes and oboes, C for the clarinets and bassoons. In 
the very high compass those notes are only given which can really be used; 
anything higher and not printed as actual notes are either too difficult to 
produce or of no artistic value. The number of sounds obtainable in the highest 
compass is indefinite, and depends, partly on the quality of the instrument 
itself, partly on theposition and application of the lips. The signs r==— — =:: 
are not to be mistaken for crescendo and diminuendo; they indicate how the 
resonance of an instrument increases or diminishes in relation to the characte- 
ristic quality of its timbre. The scope of greatest expression for each typical 

instrument is marked thus, I 1 under the notes ; the range is the same 

in each instrument of the same type. 




— 18 — 

Note. It is a difficult matter to define tone quality in words; we must 
encroach upon the domain of sight, feeling, and even taste. Though borrowed 
from these senses, I have no doubt as to the appropriateness of my comparisons, 
but, as a general rule definitions drawn from other sources are too elementary 
to be applied to music. No condemnatory meaning however should be attached 
to my descriptions, for in using the terms thick, piercing, shrill, dry, etc. my 
object is to express artistic fitness in words, rather than material exactitude. 
Instrumental sounds which have no musical meaning are classed by me in the 
category of useless sounds, and I refer Jo them as such, giving my reasons. 
With the exception of these, the reader is advised to consider all other orchestral 
timbres beautiful from an artistic point of view, although it is necessary, at 
times, to put them to other uses. 

Further on, a table of wind instruments is appended, outlining the approximate 
limit of range, defining different qualities of tone and indicating the scope of 
greatest expression (the piccolo and double bassoon excepted). 

Flutes and clarinets are the most flexible wood-wind instruments 
(the flutes in particular), but for expressive power and subtlety 
in nuances the clarinet supersedes them; tfiis instrument can reduce 
volume of tone to a mere breath. The nasal instruments, oboe 
and bassoon, are less mobile and supple; this is accounted for 
by their double reed, but, having to effect all sorts of scales and 
rapid passages in common with the flutes and clarinets, oboes 
and bassoons may be considered melodic instruments in the real 
sense of the word, only of a more cantabile and peaceful character. 
In very quick passages they often double the flutes, clarinets or strings. 

The four families are equally capable of legato and staccato 
playing and changing from one to the other in different ways, 
but distinct and penetrating staccato passages are better suited to the 
oboes and bassoons, while the flutes and clarinets excel in well- 
sustained legato phrases. Composite legato passages should be 
allotted to the first two instruments, composite stacca'.o passages 
to the latter pair, but these general directions should not deter 
the orchestrator from adopting the opposite plan. 

In comparing the technical indivitualities of the wood-wind the 
following fundamental differences should be noted: 

a) The rapid repetition of a single note by single tonguing is com- 
•n*in to all wind instruments; repitition of a single note by means 

' double tonguing is only possible on the flute, a reedless instrument. 

b) On account of its construction the clarinet is not well adapted 
to sudden leaps from one octave to another; these skips are 
easier on flutes, oboes and bassoons. 

— 19 — 

c) Arpeggios and rapid alternation of two intervals legato sound 
well on flutes and clarinets, but not on oboes and bassoons. 

Wood-wind players cannot manage extremely long sustained 
passages, as they are compelled to take breath; care must be 
taken therefore to give them a little rest from time to time. This 
is unnecessary in the case of string players. 

In the endeavour to characterise the timbre of each instrument 
typical of the four families, from a psychological point of view, I 
do not hesitate to make the following general remarks which apply 
generally to the middle and upper registers of each instrument: 

a) Flute. — Cold in quality, specially suitable, in the major key, to 
melodies of light and graceful character; in the minor key, to 
slight touches of transient sorrow. 

b) Oboe. — Artless and gay in the major, pathetic and sad in 
the minor. 

c) Clarinet. — Pliable and expressive, suitable, in the major, to 
melodies of a joyful or contemplative character, or to outbursts of 
mirth; in the minor, to sad and reflective melodies or impassioned 
and dramatic passages. 

d) Bassoon. — In the major, an atmosphere of senile mockery; 
a sad, ailing quality in the minor. 

In the extreme registers these instruments convey the following 
impressions to my mind: 

Low register Very high register 

a) Flute— Dull, cold Brilliant 

b) Oboe— Wild Hard, dry 

c) Clarinet— Ringing, threatening Piercing 

d) Bassoon— Sinister Tense. 

Note. It is true that no mood or frame of mind, whether it be joyful or sadj 
meditative or lively, careless or reflective, mocking or distressed can be aroused 
by one single isolated timbre; it dep^ds more upon the general melodic line, 
the harmony, rhythm, and dynamic shades of expression, upon the whole for- 
mation of a given piece of music. The choice of instruments and timbre to 
be adopted depends on the position which m< lody and harmony occupy in the 
seven-octave scale of the orchestra; for example, a melody of light character 
in the tenor register could not be given to the flutes, or a sad, plaintive phrase 
in the high soprano register confided to the bassoons. But the ease with which 
tone colour can be adapted to expression must not be forgotten, and in the 
first of these two cases it may be conceded that the mocking character of the 
bassoon could easily and quite naturally assume a light-hearted aspect, and 


— 20 — 

in the second case, that the slightly melancholy timbre of the flute is some- 
what related to the feeling of sorrow and distress with which the passage is 
to be permeated. The case of a melody coinciding in character with the in- 
strument on which it is played is of special importance, as the effect produced 
cannot fail to be successful. There are also moments when a composer's 
artistic feeling prompts him to employ instruments, the character of which is 
at variance with the written melody (for eccentric, grotesque effects, etc.). 

The following remarks illustrate the characteristics, timbre, and 
employment of special instruments: 

The duty of the piccolo and sm^ll clarinet is, principally, to 
extend the range of the ordinary flute and clarinet in the high 
register. The whistling, piercing quality of the piccolo in its highest 
compass is extraordinarily powerful, but does not lend itself to 
more moderate shades of expression. The small clarinet in its 
highest register is more penetrating than the ordinary clarinet 
The low and middle range of the piccolo and small clarinet 
correspond to the same register in the normal flute and clarinet, 
but the tone is so much weaker that it is of little service in those 
regions. Tlie double bassoon extends the range of the ordinary 
bassoon in the low register. The characteristics of the bassoon's 
low compass are still further accentuated in the corresponding 
range of the double bassoon, but the middle and upper registers 
of the latter are by no means so useful. The very deep notes of 
the double bassoon are remarkably thick and dense in quality, 
very powerful in piano passages. 

Note. Nowadays, when the limits of the orchestral scale are considerably 
extended (up to the high C of the 7*h octave, and down to the low C, 16 ft. 
contra octave), the piccolo forms an indispensable constituent of the wind-group; 
similarly, it is recognised that the double bassoon is capable of supplying 
valuable assistance. The small clarinet is rarely employed and only for colour 

The English horn, or alto oboe (oboe in F) is similar in tone 
to the ordinary oboe, the listless, dreamy quality of its timbre 
being sweet in the extreme. In the low register it is fairly pene- 
trating. The bass clarinet, though strongly resembling the ordinary 
clarinet, is of darker colour in the low register and lacks the 
silveiy quality in the upper notes; it is incapable of joyful ex- 
pression. The bass flute is an instrument seldom used even today; 
it possesses the same features as the flute, but it is colder in 

— 21 — 

colour, and crystalline in the middle and high regions. These 
three particular instruments, apart from extending the low registers 
of the instruments to which they belong, have their own distinctive 
peculiarities of timbre, and are often used in the orchestra, as solo 
instruments, clearly exposed. 

Note. Of the six special instruments referred to above, the piccolo and 
double bassoon were the first to be used in the orchestra; the latter, however, 
was neglected after Beethoven's death and did not reappear until towards the 
end of the 191!l century. The Eng. horn and bass clarinet were employed initially 
during the first half of the same century by Berlioz, Meyerbeer, and others, 
and for some time retained their position as extras, to become, later on, 
permanent orchestral factors, first in the theatre, then in the concert room. 
Very few attempts have been made to introduce the small clarinet into the 
orchestra (Berlioz etc.); this instrument together with the bass flute is used 
in my opera-ballet Mlada (1892), and also in my most recent compositions. 
The Christmas Night, and Sadko; the bass flute will also be found in The 
Legend of the Invisible City of Kitesh, and in the revised version of "Ivan the 

Of late years the habit of muting the wood-wind has come into 
fashion. This is done by inserting a soft pad, or a piece of roUed- 
up cloth into the bell of the instrument. Mutes deaden the tone of 
oboes, Eng. horns, and bassoons to such an extent that it is possible 
for these instruments to attain the extreme limit of pianissimo 
playing. The muting of clarinets is unnecessary, as they can play 
quite softly enough without artificial means. Is has not yet been 
discovered how to mute the flutes; such a discovery would render 
great service to the piccolo. The lowest note on the bassoon. 

and on the oboe and Eng. horn 

are impossible when the instruments are muted. Mutes have no 
effect in the highest register of wind instruments. 


The formation of the group of brass instruments, like that of the 
wood-wind is not absolutely uniform, and varies ih different scores. 
The brass group may be divided into three general classes corres- 
ponding to those of the wood-wind (in pair's, in three's, and in 


Group corresponding 

to the wood- wind 

in pair's 

Group corresponding 

to the wood-wind 

in three's 

Group corresponding 

to the wood-wind 

in four's 

2 Trumpets I, II. 

3 Trumpets I, II, III. 
(Ill— Alto trumpet 

p Cornets 1, 11. 
L2 Trumpets I, II. 

(11 — Small trumpet). 

3 Trumpets 1, II, III. 

(Ill— Alto trumpet or 

Bass trumpet. 

4 Horns 1, 11, III, IV. 

4 Horns I, II, III, IV. 

6 or 8 Horns I, II, III,' 
IV, V, Vi, VII, Vlll. 

3 Trombones. 

3 Trombones I, 11, III. 

3 Trombones I, II, III. 

1 Tuba. 

1 Tuba (1). 

1 Tuba. 

The directions are the same as in tlie preceding table for wood- 
wind. It is evident that in all three classes the formation may 
vary as the composer wishes. In music for the theatre or concert 
room page after page may be written without the use of trumpets, 
trombones and tuba, or some instrument may -be introduced, temp- 
orarily as an extra. In the above table I have given the most 
typical formations, and those which are the most common at the 
present day. 

Note I. Besides the instruments given above, Richard Wagner used some 
others in The Ring, notably the quartet of tenor and bass tubas, and a contra- 
bass trombone. Sometimes these additions weigh too heavily on the other 
groups, and at other times they render the rest of the brass ineffective. For 
this reason composers have doubtless refrained from employing such instruments, 
and Wagner himself did not include them in the score of Parsifal. Some 
present-day composers (Richard Strauss, Scriabine) write for as many as five 

Note II. From the middle of the 1911i century onward the natural brass 
disappeared from the orchestra, giving place to valve instruments. In my second 
opera. The May Night I used natural horns and trumpets, changing the keys, 
and writing the best notes "stopped"; this was purposely done for practise. 

Though far less flexible than the wood-wind, brass instruments 
heighten the effect of other orchestral groups by their powerful 
resonance. Trumpets, trombones, and tubas are about equal in 

(1) Of late years sometimes two tubas are employed, by Glazounov for 
instance in his Finnish Fantasia. (Editor's note.) 

— 23 — 

strength; cornets have not quite the same force; horns, in forte 
passages, are about one half as strong, but piano, they have 
the same weight as other brass instruments played softly. To 
obtain an equal balance, therefore, the marks of expression in the 
horns should be one degree stronger than in the rest of the brass; 
if the trumpets and trombones play pp, the horns should be 
marked p. On the other hand, to obtain a proper balance in 
forte passages, two horns are needed to one trumpet or one 
trombone. « 

Brass instruments are so similar in range and timbre that the 
discussion of register is unnecessary. As a general rule quality 
becomes more brilliant as the higher register is approached, and 
vice versa, with a decrease in tone. Played pp the resonance is 
sweet; played // the tone is hard and "crackling". Brass instru- 
ments possess a remarkable capacity for swelling from pianissimo 
to fortissimo, and reducing the tone inversely, the sf =— p effect 
being excellent. 

The following remarks as to character and tone quality may 
be added: 

a) 1. Trumpets (B\> — A). Clear and fairly penetrating in 
tone, stirring and rousing in forte passages; in piano 
phrases the high notes are full and silvery, the low notes 
troubled, as though threatening danger. 

2. Alto trumpet (in F). An instrument of my own invention, 
first used by me in the opera — ballet Mlada. In the 
deep register (notes 2 to 3 in the trumpet scale) it possesses 
a fuller, clearer, and finer tone. Two ordinary trumpets 
with an alto trumpet produce greater smoothness and 
equality in resonance than three ordinary trumpets. Satis- 
fied with the beauty and usefulness of the alto trumpet, 
I have consistently written for it in my later works, com- 
bined with wood-wind in three's. 

Note. To obviate the difficulty of using: the alto trumpet in ordinary theatres 
and some concert rooms, I have not brought into play the last four notes of 
its lowest register or their neighbouring chromatics; by this means the alto 
trumpet part may be played by an ordinary trumpet in Bl> or A. 

3. Small trumpet (in E\>—D). Invented by me and used 
for the first time in Mlada to realise the very high 

— 24 — 

trumpet notes without difficulty. In tonality and range 
the instrument is similar to the soprano cornet in a mili- 
tary band. 

Note. The small trumpet, {B\^ — A) sounding an octave higher than the 
ordinary trumpet has not yet appeared in musical literature. 

b) Cornets (m B\> — A). Possessing a quality of tone similar 
to the trumpet, but softer and weaker. It is a beautiful 
instrument though rarely employed today in theatre or 
concert room. Expert players can imitate the cornet tone 
on the trumpet, and vice versa. 

c) Horn (in F). The tone of this instrument is soft, poetical, 
and full of beauty. In the lower register it is dark and 
brilliant; round and full in the upper. The middle notes 
resemble those of the bassoon and the two instruments 
blend well together. The horn, therefore, serves as a link 
between the brass and wood-wind. In spite of valves 
the horn has but little mobility and would seem to pro- 
duce its tone in a languid and lazy manner. 

d) Trombone. Dark and threatening in the deepest register, 
brilliant and triumphant in the high compass. The piano 
is full but somewhat heavy, the forte powerful and sono- 
rous. Valve trombones are more mobile than slide trom- 
bones, but the latter are certainly to be preferred as 
regards nobility and equality of sound, the more so from 
the fact that these- instruments are rarely required to 
perform quick passages, owing to the special character of 
their tone. 

e) Tuba. Thick and rough in quality, less characteristic than 
the trombone, but valuable for the strength and beauty 
of its low notes. Like the double bass and double 
bassoon, the tuba is eminently useful for doubling, an 
octave lower, the bass of the group to which it belongs. 
Thanks to its valves, the tuba is fairly flexible. 

The group of brass instruments, though uniform in resonance 
throughout its constituent -parts, is not so well adapted to expressive 
playing (in the exact sense of the word) as the wood-wind group. 
Nevertheless, a scope of greatest expression may be distinguished 

25 — 









o - 


— 26 — 

in the middle registers. In company with the piccolo and double 
bassoon it is not given to the small trumpet (E\j( — D) and tuba 
to play with any great amount of expression. The rapid and 
rhythmical repitition of a note by single tonguing is possible to 
all members of the brass, but double tonguing can only be done 
on instruments with a small mouth-piece, trumpets and cornets. 
These two instruments can execute rapid tremolando without diffi- 
culty. The remarks on breathing, in the section devoted to the 
wood-wind, apply with equal force to the brass. 

The use of stopped notes and mutes alters the character of 
brass tone. Stopped notes can only be employed on trumpets, 
cornets and horns; the shape of trombones and tubas prevents 
the hand from being inserted into the bell. Though mutes are 
applied indiscriminately to all brass instruments in the orchestra, 
tubas rarely posses them. Stopped and muted notes are similar 
in quality. On the trumpet, muting a note produces a better tone 
than stopping it. 

In the horn both methods are employed; single notes are stopped 
in short phrases, muted in longer ones. I do not propose to describe 
the difference between the two operations in detail, and will leave 
the reader to acquire the knowledge for himself, and to form an 
opinion as to its importance from his own personal observation. 
Sufficient to say that the tone is deadened by both methods, 
assuming a wild "crackling" character in forte passages, tender and 
dull in piano. Resonance is greatly reduced, the silvery tone of the 
instrument to lost and a timbre resembling that of the oboe and 
Eng. horn is approached. Stopped notes (con sordino) are marked 
-f- underneath the note, sometimes followed by 0» denoting the 
resumption of open sounds, senza sordini. Brass instruments, when 
muted, produce an effect of distance. 

C. Instruments of little sustaining power. 

Plucked strings. 

When the usual orchestral string quartet (Vni I, Vni II, Violas, 
'Cellos, D. basses) does not make use of the bow, but plucks thjC 
strings with the finger, it becomes to my mind a new and inde- 

— 27 — 

pendent group with its own particular quality of tone. Associated 
with the harp, which produces sound in a similar manner, I con- 
sider it separately- under the heading of plucked strings. 

Note. In this group may be classed the gmids, zither, balalaika; instruments 
plucked with a quill, such as the domra, (1) the mandoline etc., all of which may 
be used in an orchestra, but have no place in the scope of the present book. 


Although capable of every degree of power from // to pp, pizzi- 
cato playing has but small range of expression, and is used chiefly 
as a colour effect On open strings it is resonant and heavy, on 
stopped strings shorter and duller; in the high positions it is rather 
dry and hard. 

Table D on page 31 indicates the range in which pizzicato may 
be used on each stringed instrument. 

In the orchestra, pizzicato comes into operation in two distinct 
ways: a) on single notes, b) on double notes and chords. The 
fingers of the right hand playing pizz. are far less agile than the bow; 
pizz. passages therefore can never be performed as quickly as those 
played arco. Moreover, the speed of pizzicato playing depends upon 
the thickness of the strings; on the double basses, for instance, 
it must always be much slower than on the violins. 

In pizzicato chords it is better to avoid open strings, which 
produce a more brilliant tone than of covered strings. Chords of 
four notes allow oi greater freedom and vigour of attack, as 
there is no danger of accidentally touching a wrong note. Natural 
harmonics played pizz. create a charming effect; the tone is weak 
however, and they are chiefly successful on the violoncello. 


In the orchestra, the harp is almost entirely an harmonic or 
accompanying instrument. The majority of scores require only 
one harp part, but in recent times composers have written for two 
or even three harps, which are sometimes compressed into the 
one part 

(1) A russian instrument which, like the balalaika, is better known abroad. 

(Translator's note.) 

— 28 — 

Note. Full orchestras should include three or even four harps. My operas 
Sadko, The Legend of the Invisible City of Kitesh, and The Golden Cockerel 
are designed for t\yo harps, Mlada for three. 

The special function of the harp lies in the execution of chords, 
and the florid figures springing from them. As only four notes 
at the most can be played by each hand, the notes of a chord 
should be written close together, with not too great a space be- 
tween one hand and the other. The chords must always be broken 
(arpeggiato); should the composer wish otherwise he should 
notify it (non arpeggiato). In the middle and lower octaves the 
resonance of the strings is slightly prolonged, and dies away gra- 
dually. In changes of harmony the player stops the vibration of 
the strings with his hands, but, in quick modulations, this method 
is not feasible, and the mixture of one chord with another produces 
a discordant effect. It follows that more or less rapid figures can 
only be realised clearly and neatly in the upper register of *he harp, 
where the strings are shorter and harder in tone. 

As a general rule, in the whole range of the harp: 

8 bassa 

only the notes of the first to the fourth octave are used; the extreme 
notes in both compasses may be employed in special circumstances, 
and for doubling in octaves. 

The harp is essentially a diatonic instrument, since all chromatic 
passages depend on the manipulation of the pedals. For this reason 
the harp does not lend itself to rapid modulation, and the orches- 
trator is advised to bear this fact in mind. But the difficulty may 
be obviated by using two harps alternately. (1) 

Note. I would remind the reader that the harp is not capable of double 
sharps or double flats. For this reason, certain modulations from one key to 
another one, adjacent to it can only be accomplished enharmonically. For 
instance, the transition from C flat, G flat or D flat, major to their minor sub- 
dominant chords or keys is not possible owing to double flats. It is therefore 

(I) A chromatic harp without pedals has now been invented in France 
(Lyon's system), on which the most abrupt modulations are possible. 

(Translator's note.) 

— 29 — 

necessary to start enharmonically from the keys of B, F sharp or C sharp, 
major. Similarly, on account of double sharps, it is impossible to change from 
A sharp, D sharp or G sharp, minor to their respective dominant major chords 
or keys; B flat, E flat and A flat, minor must be the starting-points. 

The technical operation known as glissando is peculiar to the harp 
alone. Taking for granted that the reader is conversant with the 
methods of acquiring different scales by means of double-notched 
pedals, it will be sufficient to remark that glissando scales produce 
a discordant medley of sound owing to the length of time the 
strings continue to vibrate, and therefore, as a purely musical 
effect, glissando can only be used in the upper octaves, quite piano, 
where the sound of the strings is sufficienty clear, yet not too 
prolonged. Forte glissando scales, entailing the use of the lower 
and middle strings are only permissible as embellishments. Glis- 
sando passages in chords of the seventh and ninth, enharmonically 
obtained, are much more common, and as the above reservations 
do not apply, every dynamic shade of tone is possible. Chords in 
harmonics can only consist of three notes written close together^ 
two for the left hand and one for the right. 

The tender poetic quality of the harp is adapted to every dy- 
namic shade, but it is never a very powerful instrument, and the 
orchestrator should treat it with respect. 

At least three, if not four harps in unison are necessary, if 
they are to be heard against a full orchestra playing forte. The 
more rapidly a glissando passage is played, the louder it will sound. 
Harmonic notes on the harp have great charm but little resonance, 
and are only possible played quite softly. Speaking generally, the 
harp, like the string quartet, pizzicato, is more an instrument of 
colour than expression. 

Percussion instruments producing determinate 
sounds, keyed instruments. 


Kettle-drums, indispensable to every theatre and concert orchestra 
occupy the most important place in the group of percussion instru- 
ments. A pair of kettle-drums (Timpani), in the tonic and domi- 
nant keys, was the necessary attribute of an orchestra up to, and 

— 30 — 

including Beethoven's* time, but, from, the middle of the WJl cen- 
tury onward, in western Europe and in Russia, an ever-increasing 
need was felt for the presence of three or even four kettle-drums, 
during the whole course or part of a work. If the expensive 
chromatic drum, permitting instant tuning is rarely met with, still, 
in the majority of good orchestras, three screw drums are gene- 
rally to be found. The composer can therefore tdke it for granted 
that a good timpanist, having three kettle-drums at his command, will 
be able to tune at least one of them during a pause of some length. 
The limits of possible change in Beethoven's time was consi- 
dered to be: 

(chromaticatly) (cV»w»*^'^*'^ 

Big 4|; Small 4y 

kettle-drura : ^.^ ■— ^" kettle-drum: . P 

In these days it is difficult to define the precise extent of high 
compass in the kettle-drums, as this depends entirely on the size 
and quality of the smallest one, of which there are many kinds, 
but I advise the composer to select:«V^ 


Note. A magnificent kettle-drum of very small size was made for my opera- 
ballet Mlada; this instrument gave the Z)> of the fourtii octave. 

Kettle-drums are capable of every dynamic shade of tone, from 
thundering fortissimo to a barely perceptible pianissimo. In tre- 
molando they can execute the most gradual crescendo, diminuendOy 
the sfp and morendo. 

To deaden the sound, a piece of cloth is generally placed on 
the skin of the drum, according to the instruction: timpani coperti 
(muffled drums). 

Piano and Celesta. 

The use of a piano in the orchestra (apart from pianoforte con- 
certos) belongs almost entirely to the russian school (1). The object 
is two-fold: the quality of tone, either alone, or combined with 

(1) Rimsky-Korsakov's opera Sadko and Moussorgsky's Boris Godounov 
are particularly interesting in this respect. (Translator's note.) 

— 31 — 

Table D. 





Double bass. ^ 

The black notes are dry and hard, without resonance, and should only be 
used when doubled with the wood-wind. 

* Table E. 

Glockenspiel, celesta, xylophone. 


(with keyboard!. 





•) This note is often missing. 

— 32 — 

that of the harp, is made to imitate a popular instrument, the guzli, 
(as in Glinka), or a soft peal of bells. When the piano forms part 
of an orchestra, not as a solo instrument, an upright is preferable 
to a grand, but today the piano it is gradually being superseded by 
the celesta, first used by Tschaikovsky. In the celesta, small steel 
plates take the place of strings, and the hammers falling on them 
produce a delightful sound, very similar to the glockenspiel. The 
celesta is only found in full orchestras; when it is not available 
it should be replaced by an upright piano, and not the glockenspiel. 

Glockenspiel, Bells, Xylophone. 

The glockenspiel (campanelli) may be made of steel bars, or 
played with a keyboard. The first type is the more satisfactory 
and posesses greater resonance. The use of the glockenspiel is 
similar to the celesta, but its tone is more brilliant and pene- 
trating. Big bells in the shape of hollow discs or metal tubes (1), 
or real church bells of moderate size may be considered more as 
theatrical properties than orchestral instruments. 

The xylophone is a species of harmonica composed of strips or 
cylinders of wood, struck with two little hammers. It produces a 
clattering sound, both powerful and piercing. 

To complete this catalogue of sounds mention should be made 
of the strings playing col legno, that is with the wood or back of 
the bow. The sound produced is similar to the xylophone, and 
gains in quality as the number of players is increased. 

A table is appended showing the range of 'the celesta, glocken- 
spiel and xylophone. 

Percussion instruments producing indefinite 


Instruments in this group, such as triangle, castanets, little bells, 
tambourine, switch or rod {Rule. Gen), side or military drum, cym- 
bals, bass drum, and Chinese gong do not take any harmonic or 
melodic part in the orchestra, and can only be considered as 
ornamental instruments pure and simple. They have no intrinsic 

(1) Recently, bells have been made of suspended metal plates possessing the 
rare quality of a fairly pure tone, and which are sufficiently portable to be used 
on the concert platform. (Editor's note.) 

- 33 - 

musical meaning, and are just mentioned by the way. The first 
three m^ay be considered as high, the four following as medium^ 
and the last two as deep instruments. This may serve as a guide 
to their use with percussion instruments of determinate sounds, 
playing in corresponding registers. 

Comparison of resonance in orchestral groups and 
combination of different tone qualities. 

In comparing the resonance of the respective groups of sound- 
sustaining instruments we arrive at the following approximate con- 

In the most resonant group, the brass, the strongest instruments 
are the trumpets, trombones and tuba. In loud passages the horns 
are only one-half as strong, 1 Trumpet = 1 Trombone = 1 Tuba 
= 2 Horns. Wood-wind instruments, in prte passages, are twice 
as weak as the horns, 1 Horn = 2 Clarinets = 2 Oboes = 2 Flutes 
= 2 Bassoons; but, in piano passages, all wind-instruments, wood 
or brass are of fairly equal balance. 

It is more difficult to establish a comparison in resonance between 
wood-wind and strings, as everything depends on the number of the 
latter, but, in an orchestra of medium formation, it may be taken for 
granted that in piano passages, the whole of one department {all 
151 Violins or all 2!ii Violins etc.) is equivalent in strength to one wind 
instrument, (Violins I = 1 Flute etc.), and, in jorte passages, to two 
wind instruments, (Violins I = 2 Flutes = 1 Oboe + 1 Clarinet, etc.). 

It is still harder to form a comparison with instruments of little 
sustaining power, for too great a diversity in production and emission 
of sound exists. The combined force of groups of sustained resonance 
easily overpowers the strings played pizz. or col legno, the piano 
played softly, or the celesta. As regards the glockenspiel, bells, and 
xylophone, their emphatic tone will easily prevail over other groups in 
combination. The same may be said of the kettle-drums with their 
ringing, resounding quality, and also of other subsidiary instruments. 

The influence of the timbre of one group on another is noticeable 
when the groups are doubled; for instance, when the wood-wind 
timbre is closely allied to the strings on the one hand, and to the 
brass on the other. Re-inforcing both, the wind thickens the strings 


and softens the brass. The strings do not blend so well with the 
brass, and when the two groups are placed side by side, each is 
heard too distinctly. The combination of the three different timbres 
in unison produces a rich, mellow and coherent tone. 

All, or several wind instruments in combination will absorb one 
department of. added strings: 

2 Fl. +2 Ob. + Vni I, 
or: 2 Ob. + 2 CI. + Violas, 
or: 2 CI." 4- 2 Fag. 4- 'Cellos. 

One department of strings added to the wood-wind in unison 
produces a sweet coherent q^uality, the wood-wind timbre still 
predominating; but the addition of one wind instrument to all or 
part of the strings in unison, only thickens the resonance of the 
latter, the wood-wind timbre being lost in the process: 

Vni I + Vni II -f 1 Ob., 
or: Violas + 'Cellos + 1 CI. 
or: 'Cellos -j- D. basses + 1 F^g- 

Muted strings do not combine so well with wood-wind, as the 
two tone qualities remain distinct and separate. Uniting plucked 
strings and percussion with instruments of sustained resonance 
results in the following: wind instruments, wood and brass, strengthen 
and clarify pizzicato strings, harp, kettle-drums and percussion 
generally, the latter lending a touch of relief to the tone of the 
wood-wind. Uniting plucked strings and percussion with bowed 
instruments does not produce such a satisfactory blend, both qualities 
being heard independently. The combination of plucked strings 
with percussion alone, is excellent; the two blend perfectly, and the 
consequent increase in resonance yields an admirable effect. 

The relationship which exists between string harmonics and the 
flute or piccolo constitutes a link between the two groups in the 
upper range of the orchestra. Moreover, the timbre of the viola 
may be vaguely compared to the middle register of the bassoon 
and the lowest compass of the clarinet; hence, in the medium 
orchestral range, a point of contact is established between the 
quartet of strings and the wood-wind. 

The bassoon and horn provide the connection between wood- 
wind and brass, these two instruments being somewhat analogous 


- 35 — 

in character when played piano or mezzo- forte; the flute also, in its 
lowest register, recalls the pianissimo trumpet tone. Stopped 
and muted notes in horns and trumpets are similar in quality to 
the oboe and Eng. horn, and blend tolerably well with the latter 

Concluding this survey of orchestral groups I add a few remarks 
which seem to me of special importance. 

The principal part in music is undertaken by three instrumental 
groups of sustained resonance, representing the three primary ele- 
ments, melody, harmony and rhythm. Instruments of little sustaining 
power, though sometimes used independently, are chiefly employed 
for ornament and colour; instruments producing indeterminate sounds 
play no melodic or harmonic part, their functions being purely 

By glancing at the order in which the six orchestral groups are 
placed, strings, wood-wind, brass, plucked strings, percussion pro- 
ducing definite, and those producing indefinite sounds, the reader 
will be able to determine the part played by each in the art of 
orchestration, from the secondary standpoint of colour and expression. 
As regards expression, the strings come first, and the expressive 
capacity of the other groups diminishes in the above order, colour 
being the only attribute of the last group of percussion instruments. 

The same order obtains from the standpoint of general effect in 
orchestration. We can listen to strings for an almost indefinite 
period of time without getting tired, so varied are their characteristics 
{vide the number of string quartets, suites, serenades etc. written 
for strings alone). The addition of a single group of strings will 
add lustre to a passage for wind instruments. On the other hand, 
the quality of wind instruments soon becomes wearisome; the same 
may be said of plucked strings, and also percussion of every kind 
which should only be employed at reasonable intervals in orchestral 

It cannot be denied that the constant use of compound timbres, 
in pair's, in three's etc. eliminates characteristics of tone, and pro- 
duces a dull, neutral texture, whereas the employment of simple, 
elementary combinations gives infinitely greater scope for variety 

'" '=°"'"- 7 (20) June 1908. 

Chapter II. 


Whether it be long or short, a simple theme or a melodic phrase, 
melody should always stand out in relief from the accompaniment. 
This may be done by artificial or natural means; artificially, when 
the question of tone quality does not come into consideration, and 
the melody is detached by means of strongly accentuated dynamic 
shades; naturally, by selection and contrast of timbres, strengthening 
of resonance by doubling, tripling, etc., or crossing of parts (violon- 
cellos above the violas and violins, clarinets or oboes above the 
flutes, bassoons above the clarinets etc.). 

Melody planned in the upper parts stands out from the very 
fact of position alone, and likewise, to a less degree when it is 
situated in the low register. In the middle of the orchestral range 
it is not so prominent and the methods referred to above come 
into operation. They may also be employed for two part melody 
(in thirds and sixths) and for polyphonic writing. 

Melody in stringed instruments. 

Instances of the melodic use of stringed instruments are in- 
numerable. The reader will find many examples in the pre- 
sent treatise. With the exception of the double basses, — dull 
in tone and of little flexibility, chiefly employed in unison or in 
octaves with the violoncellos, — each of the other stringed in- 
struments, taken independently, is qualified to assume full respon- 
sibility for the melodic line. 

— 37 — 

a) Violins. 

Melody in the soprano-alto register and an extra-high compass 
usually falls to the lot of the 151 Violins, sometimes to the 2ni Vio- 
lins or to both in unison, a process which produces fuller re- 
sonance without impairing quality of tone. 


The Tsar's Bride [84j. — Pianissimo melody (Vnil) of a troubled, 
dramatic character. Harmonic accompaniment (Vn?-!! and Vio- 
las tremolando — middle parts; the Violincellos forming the bass). 

Antar, before 70 . — Descending melodic phrase, Vn^I con sor- 
dini piano. 

No. 1. Sheherazade 2iil movement B . A piano melody (Vnil) 
graceful in character. 

Antar 12 . Light graceful melody, oriental in style; a dance 
measure (Vnil con sord.), the mutes producing a dull ethereal 
quality of tone. 

No. 2. The Legend of the Invisible City of Kiiesh [283 

No. 3. Spanish Capriccio [T\. Vni I in the upper register 

doubling the high register of the wood-wind. Choice resonance. 

b) Violas. 

Melody in the alto-tenor register and a still higher compass is 
assigned to the violas. Cantabile melodies however are not so 
frequently written for violas as for violins and 'cellos, partly be- 
cause the viola tone is slightly nasal in quality and better fitted for 
short characteristic phrases, partly because the number of viola 
players in an orchestra is smaller. Melodies confided to the vio- 
las are generally doubled by other strings or by the wood-wind. 


No. 4. Pan Voyevoda, duet in Act II 145 . A long cantabile 

melody in the violas, dolce, in unison with the mezzo soprano voice. 

No. 5. The Golden Cockerel 193 . — Flowing cantabile. 

No. 6. Sadko. Symphonic tableau 12. — Muted violas. A short 

dance theme, piano in D\> major. (The same theme in Eng. horn 

— 38 — 

in the 6i!i ^ene of the opera Sadko is slightly more penetrating 
in tone). 

c) Violoncellos. 

Violoncellos, representing the tenor-bass range + an extra-high 
compass are more often entrusted with tense passionate cantabile 
melody than with distinctive figures or rapid phrases. Such me- 
lodies are usually laid out for the top string (A) which possesses 
a wonderfully rich "chest" quality. 


Cantabile on the A string. 

The same melody in Dl> maj. on the D string 
(doubled by the bassoons). 

Antar [56 
Antar [63 

No. 7. Pan Voyevoda 134 , nocturne, "Moonlight". A broad 
melody dolce ed espressivo, afterwards doubled by the first violins 
an octave higher. 

No. 8. Snegourotchka 231 . At the fifth bar, a melody on the 
A string cantabile ed espressivo, imitating the first clarinet. 

No. 9. Snegourotchka [274J. Melodic phrase with embellishments. 

d) Double basses. 

Owing to its register— basso profondo -{- a still lower compass, — 
and its muffled resonance, the double bass is little capable of 
broad cantabile phrases and only in unison or in octaves with the 
'cellos. In my own compositions there is no phrase of any im- 
portance given to the double bass without the support of 'cellos 
or bassoons. 


*No. 10. Legend of Kitesh 306 . Double bass solo, doubled 

first by the double bassoon, later by the bassoon. This example 
affords an instance of the rare use of the alto clef (in the last 
few notes). 

*No. 11. The Golden Cockerel 120 . — D. basses + D- bassoons. 

— 39 — 

Grouping in unison. 

a) Vnil -j- Vnill. — It goes without saying that this combination 
entails no alteration in colour; it gains in power and richness of 
tone by reason of the increased number of players, and is usually 
attended by doubling of the melody in some departments of the 
wood-wind. The large number of violins prevents the wood-wind 
predominating, and the tone quality remains that of the string 
quartet, enriched and amplified. 


No. 12. Sfieherazade, beginning of the third movement, Cantabile 
for Vnil and I! on the D string, then on the A. 

The May Night, overture D . Quick piano melody, beginning 

cantabile and divided later in octaves (vnsn]^) with florid em- 

No. 13. The Golden Cockerel no . — Vnil + II muted 

b) Violins -j- Violas. — The combination of violins and violas 
presents no special characteristics, as in the preceding case. The 
violins remain predominant, and the resonance is rich and full. 


No. 14. Sadko [2O8J. — Vnil + II + Violas (G string). Quiet 
cantabile melody pp, in unison with the altos and tenors of the 

The Golden Cockerel 142 . — Same combination. 

c) Violas + 'Cellos. — Produces a rich full resonance, the 'cello 
quality predominating. 


No. 15. Snegourotchka |T]. — Apparition of Spring. Violas -[- 
'Cellos 4" Eng. horn. The same melody, mezzo-forte cantabile as in 
Ex. 9; but in a brighter key, a third higher, its resonance is more 
brilliant and tense. The addition of the Eng. horn makes no 
essential differer'ce to the compound tone; the 'cellos stand out 
above the rest. 

No. 16. The Golden Cockerel [t^. Violas + 'Cellos muted. 



d) Violins -)- 'Cellos. — A combination similar to the preceding 
one. The 'cello tone prevails and the resonance is fuller. 


Nr. 17. Snegourotchka |288| . "Spring descends upon the lake." 
Vni. 1 + Vni- 11 + 'Cellos -f Eng. horn. The same cantabile as in 
Ex.9, and 15. The Eng. horn is absorbed in the musical texture, the 
principal colour being that of the 'cellos. Still more powerful in 

No. 18. The May Night. Act III [T]. Chorus of Roussdlki. 
The combination of the solo 'cello with the violins gives the latter 
a touch of the 'cello timbre. 

e) Vn5- 1 -j- H -|- Violas -f- 'Cellos. — Combining violins, violas and 
'cellos in unison is not possible except in the alto-tenor register; 
this process unites the full resonance of the instruments into an 
ensemble of complex quality, very tense and powerful in forte passa- 
ges, extremely full and rich in piano. 

No. 19. Sheherazade, 2ni movement P . — Energetic phrase //. 
Mlada, Lithuanian dance, before [adj. 

Mlada, Act. III. 40 . — Cleopatra's dance. Cantabile embellished 
in oriental fashion. 

f) Violoncellos -|- E^- basses. — A combination of rich full reso- 
nance, used occasionally for nhrases in the very low register. 


No. 20. Sadko 260|. — A persistent forte figure, severe in 

No. 21. Legend of Kitesh [240] . — A pianissimo phrase, sinister 
and horrible in charaqter. 

Stringed instruments doubling in octaves. 

a) Vnil and Vn^-ll in octaves. 

This is a very common process used for all k.nds of melodic 
figures, in particular those in the very high register. It has al- 
ready been stated that the £. string diminishes in fulness of tone 

— 41 — 

the higher it ascends from the limits of the soprano voice. More- 
over, melodic figures in the very high register of the violins become 
too isolated from the rest of the ensemble unless doubled in octaves. 
Such doubling secures expression, fulness of tone and firmness of 
timbre. The reader will find numerous examples of violins in 
octaves; a few are added below, chiefly broad and expressive 

Examples : 

No. 22. The Tsar's Bride 166 . Cantabile, piano 

The Tsar's Bride |206| . Cantabile, mezzo-piano; the lower part 
is in unison with the soprano voice. 

Sheherazade, 3^ movement [T[. Cantabile in G major; dolce and 
cantabile (the same as Ex. 12). 

No. 23. The Legend of Tsar Saltan \221j. Melody with reite- 
rated notes, dolce, espress. e cantabile. 

Sadko, Symphonic tableau 12 . yUf-iJ] 8 muted, A short dance 
phrase pianissimo, given first to the violas, thei; to the violins 
(cf. Ex. 6). 

No. 24. Sadko, opera 207 . Perhaps an unique example of 

its kind; violins playing in the very extremity of the high register. 

Note. This passage is difficult but nevertheless quite playable. One or two 
desks of the Isl Violins are sufficient to double the melody in the upper octave, 
all the other 151 Violins can play the octave below. In this way the piercing 
quality of the highest notes will be diminished, the melody will acquire a clearer 
and more pleasant sound, and the expressive tone quality of the lower octave 
will be strengthened. 

* The Golden Cockerel 156 



* Antar, 1-^ movement 

* No. 25. Ivan the Terrible, Act III [63 

b) Violins divisi in octaves. 

First and second violins divided in two parts and progressing 
in octaves will deprive the melody of resonance, since the number 
of players is diminished by half, the consequences being specially 
noticeable in small orchestras. Nevertheless the method can be 
used occasionally when the strings are doubled by the wood-wind, 
and when the melody falls in a sufficiently high register. 

— 42 — 

Snegourotchka \^. — vns'iij ^ mezzo-forte espressivo. Partial 

doubling of Coupava's song (Sopr.). One flute and one oboe double 
the melody. 

No. 26. Snegourotchka [^. — Chorus of Flowers — vn\""-f fi i] ^• 
Pianissimo cantabile in two octaves, progressing with the women's 
chorus (Sopr. I), and given out earlier by the Eng. horn. The flute 
and all the l^i Violins except two play in the lower octave, the 
two solo violins, only, in the upper. The solo desk will be suffi- 
ciently prominent owing to the general pianissimo. 

c) Violins and Violas in octaves. 

First and second Violins progressing with the Violas in octaves 
is a common method, especially when the lower octave in the 
melody happens to go below the open G string on the violins. 

. VniOorlin,, 
^' Violas J ^• 

Snegourotchka [TaT] , finale of Act 1. Quick melody, piano. 

ry Vni I + in -, Vnl I 1 „ 

2- Violas J^ ^"^ 3- Vnlll + ViolasJ^- 

These two distributions are not exactly the same. The first 

should be used to obtain greater brilliance in the upper part, the 

second to give the lower part a fuller and more cantabile quality. 

No. 27. Sadko, before [TsT]. — yfjj^'s^ "] 8. Quick animated 

passage, forte, introducing reiterated notes. 
No. 28. Snegourotchka [Ta?], finale to Act I — vSl n + vioiasj ^• 

Cantabile phrase, transmitted to the flute and clarinet (cf. Ex. 8). 

d) Violas and Violoncellos in octaves. 

Of special use when the Violins are otherwise employed. 

* Legend of Kitesh [so], cSios] ^' ^^^^^^^ ^y bassoons. 

e) Violins and Violoncellos in octaves. 

Used in very expressive passages where the 'cellos have to play 
on the .4 or D strings. This method produces a more resonant 
tone than the preceding one; instances of it are frequent. 

— 43 — 

No. 29. ^nfar [43]. -y^"|l/^+V"^"]8. Cantabile of Eastern 

Sheherazade, S'-^ movement [hI. — X."^,' ] 8. Cantabile mezzo- 


forte appassionato (cf. Ex. 1). 

* No. 30. Shererazade, 3'A movement, before [p] — ^[]J ,J ^ -cenos] ^ 
and ^liios '] 8- The first arrangement is rarely found. 

Pan Voyevoda |i34| , nocturne "Moonlight" — ^q'^I^^ 8. Canta- 

bile melody given first to 'cellos alone (cf. Ex. 7). 

The Mcy Night, Act III |b,c,d] — ^0^,0+^"-"] 8- A forte me- 

lodic phrase. 

f) Violoncellos and Double basses in octaves. 

The bass is usually constructed in this manner. Examples of 
it are to be found everywhere. Sometimes the double bass part 
is simplified in comparison with the 'cello part. 

Snegourotchka [9], Fairy Spring's Aria. 

g) Violas and Double basses in octaves. 

This combination seldom arises and is only used when the 
'cellos are otherwise employed. 

No. 31. Legend of Kitesh 


h) Parts progressing in octaves, each part doubled in unison. 
Melodies situated in the middle orchestral range may be allotted- 
to 151 and 22^ Vni, in octaves with Violas and 'Cellos. This arrange- 
ment is constantly found, and produces a beautiful quality of tone, 
somewhat severe in character. 

Snegoarotchka\^, feol, [65] and [is]. The same melody, played 

twice pianissimo, not doubled, then twice (mezzo-forte and forte), 
doubled in the wood-wind. 

~ 44 — 

Mlada, Act II, the beginning of the Lithuanian dance. A lively 
piano theme. 

Ivan the Terrible, Act II 


Note I. It may be of use to point out that melodies lying in 
the extreme upper register, e. g. those exceeding the middle of the 
5t!L octave, are generally doubled an octave below, whilst those 
situated in the extreme low register (below the middle of the 
l2l octave) are doubled an octave higher. 


Sadko [207j (cf. Ex. 24). 

Note II. Progression in octaves of divided strings of the same 
kind is generally to be avoided: 

Violas I 'Cellos I D. basses 11 <j 
Violas ir' 'Cellos H ' D. basses IlJ ^' 

for, in such cases the parts are played on strings which do not 

correspond, and unity of tone is impaired. This, however, does 

not apply to violins. 

Note III. The following distribution is occasionally found: 

Violas + 'Cellos I] „ 
D. basses + 'Cellos IlJ °' 

Melody in double octaves. 

Vns I] 8 Vni I ] 8 

a) Vni in a or vni. nig may be used for full cantabile melodies 

ViolasJ ° 'CellosJ ° 
extremely tense in character, and in forte passages for choice. 


No. 32. Antar 


Vni I ] 8. 

Violas + 'CellosJ ^* 

— Vni 11 

Violas ] 8 Vns I + II ] 8 Vni I + II + Violas 

b) 'Cellos 1 8 or Violas + 'Cellos] g or 'Cellos 
D. bassesj D. basses J D. basses 

are employed when the low register of each instrument in brought 

into play, and also to suit phrases of a rough and severe character. 


Legend of Kitesh 66 , opening of the 2iii Act. 

No. 33. Snegourotchka [2j5j. Tumblers' dance. 

— 45 — 

Note. The lack of balance in the distribution: 

Vni I +11 + Violas] 8 
'Cellos 1 g 

D. basses J 

is not of any great importance, for, in such cases, the partial har- 
monics of one octave support the tone of the other, and vice versa. 

Doubling in three and four octaves. 

Vni 1 1 8 
Vnlll 18 
The distribution violas \ „ is very seldom found, and as a rule, 
'Cellos I ^ 
D. basses J 8 

only when supported by wind instruments. 


The Legend of Kitesh 150 (allargando) 

* Sheherazade, 4i!i movement, commercing at the lO'iibar. 

Vnil 1 

Vns II \ ^ 

Violas + 'Cellos \ °* 
D. basses ] 

Melody in thirds and sixths. 

In confiding a melody in thirds to the strings it is frequently 
necessary to use the same quality of tone in both parts, but in the 
case of a melody in sixths different timbres may be employed. In 
writing thirds doubled in octaves, the first and second violins should 
be used. In spite of the difference in the quantity of players, the 
thirds will not sound unequal. The same arrangement may obtain 
in the viola and 'cello groups, but it is useless in the case of 
melody in sixths. 


•No. 34. Legend of Kitesh g - Vn|,} ^Jv.)^ ^j g 

* Legend of Kitesh 

IS n 
liii / 

Cf. also Legend of Kitesh 

_ Vni I "i , 

ViolasJ • 


Vns 1 \ , 

Vni II ; -^ 

8 (Ex. 31). 

Distribution in octaves, thirds, and sixths is usually regulated by 
the normal register of the respective instruments, so as to avoid 

46 — 

any suggestion of mannerism resulting from the disturbance of 
balance. But such a departure from the recognised order may be 
permitted in special cases. For instance, in the following example 
of writing in sixths the upper part is allotted to the 'cellos, the 
lower part to the violins on the G string; this arrangement produces 
a quality of tone distinctly original in character. 

No. 35. Spanish Capriccio 

'Cellos 1 . 
Vnil + IlJ^- 

Melody in the wood-wind. 

*The choice of instruments for characteristic and expressive 
melody is based on their distinctive qualities, discussed minutely 
in the foregoing chapter. To a large extent the question is left to 
the orchestrator s own personal taste. Only the best methods of 
using the wood-wind in unison or octaves, and distributing a melody 
in thirds, sixths and mixed intervals, from the standpoint of reso- 
nance and tone quality will be indicated in this section of the 
work. Examples of the use of solo wood-wind are to be found 
in any score; the following are typical instances: 

Examples of solo wood-wind: 

1. Piccolo: Serbian Fantasia 
Snegourotchka [54] . 

2. Flute: Antar [T|; Servilia 

No. 36. Tsar Saltan 






Fairy Tale [l]; The Cht^stmas Night 

4^ movement, before [ajn(F/. a 2 in the low register). 
F/ufe (double tonguing): Pan Voyevoda 


No. 37. Sheherazade, 


; Sheherazade, 4ln move- 


ment, after |T]; No. 38. Ivan the Terrible, Act III, after 

3. Bass flute: No. 39. Legend of Kitesh [44]. 

4. Oboe: No. 40. Sheherazade, 2ii^ movement [a]; The May Nighty 
; No. 41. Snegourotchka [so]; Snegourotchka 




Act HI 

The Tsar's Bride [m\ (cf. Ex. 284), No. 42 and 43. The Golden 
Cockerel 57 and [97" . 

5. Eng.horn: Snegourotchkaf^, [283 (cf. Ex. 26); No. 44. Spanish 

No. 45. The Golden Cockerel 61 

— 47 

6. Small Clarinet: No. 46. Mlada, Act II [33]; M/flda, Act III [37]. 

7. Clarinet: Serbian Fantasia [g]; Spanish. Capriccio [a]; 5ne- 
gourotchka [90], [99], [224], [227], [231] (cf. Ex. 8); T/i^ May Night, 

; >^ Ffliry To/e 

Act I, before x ; Sheherazade, 3i^ movement 



The Golden Cockerel 


[m]; T/ie Tsar's 5nd^ |^, 
register, cf. Ex. 43). 
8. Bass clarinet: No. 47 and 48. Snegourotchka 243 and [246- 2'47 

9. Bassoon: Antar [59]; No. 49. Vera Scheloga [36]; Sheherazade, 
2n^ movement, beginning (cf. Ex. 40); No. 50. The Golden Cockerel 
; No. 51. Mlada, Act III, after [29]; cf. also Ex. 78. 

; cf. also 




10. Double bassoon: Legend of Kitesh, before 
Ex. 10 (D. bassoon ~\- D. bass solo). 

The normal order of wood-wind instruments and that which 
produces the most natural resonance is the following: Flutes, Oboes, 
Clarinets, Bassoons (the order used in orchestral full scores). De- 
parture from this natural order, e.g. placing bassoons above clarinets 
and oboes, or flutes below oboes and clarinets, and especially 
below the bassoons, creates a far-fetched, unnatural tone, useful, 
however, in certain cases to attain certain special effects. I do 
not advise the student to make too free a use of this proceeding. 

Combination in unison. 

The combination of two different wood-wind instruments in unison 
yields the following tone qualities: 

a) Flute -\- Oboe. A quality fuller than that of the flute, sweeter 
than that of the oboe. Played softly, the flute will predominate 
in the low, the oboe in the upper register. Example: No. 52. 
Snegourotchka |TT3~|. 

b) Flute + Clarinet. A quality fuller than that of the flute, duller 
than that of the clarinet. The flute will predominate in the lower, 
the clarinet in the higher register. Examples: No. 53. Legend of 
Kitesh 1 330 1; also 




c) Oboe -h Clarinet. A fuller quality than that of either instrument 
heard separately. The dark, nasal tone of the oboe will prevail in 
the low register, the bright, "chest" quality of the clarinet in the 

high compass. Examples: Snegourotchka |_i9j; No. 54. Snegourotchka 

— 48 — 

lis] . Cf. also Legend of Kitesh [os], [to], [iT] — 2 Ob. + 3 CI. 
(Ex. 199—201). 

d) Flute + Oboe + Clarinet. Very full in quality. The flute pre- 
dominates in the low register, the oboe in the middle, and the 
clarinet in the high compass. Examples: Mlada, Act I [T]; * Sadko 
[58] (2 Fl. + 2 Ob. -f Small CI.). 

e) Bassoon + Clarinet, Very full quality. The gloomy character 
of the clarinet prevails in the lower register, the sickly quality of 
the bassoon in the higher. Example: Mlada, Act II, after [49] . 

f) Bassoon -f- Oboe, and 

g) Bassoon + Flute. 

The combinations / and g, as well as Bassoon + Clarinet -{- Oboe, 
and Bassoon -\- Clarinet + Flute are very seldom found except in 
certain orchestral tutti, where they produce increased resonance 
without creating a fresh atmosphere. But in such combinations, 
the range of which is practically restricted to the limits of the 
third octave, the low notes of the flute will predominate in the 
lower third of this register, and the high notes of the bassoon in 
the middle third. The clarinet, weak in the middle compass will 
not stand out prominently in this particular combination. 

h) Bassoon -\- Clarinet -\- Oboe -j- Flute. This combination is equally \ 

rare. The colour is rich, and difficult to define in words. The j 

tone of each instrument will be separated from the others more 
or less in the manner detailed above. Examples: Russian Easter 
Fite, the beginning; No. 55. Snegourotchka |30i| ; The May Night, 
Act III 


The process of combining two or more qualities of tone is unison, 
while endowing the music with greaterresonance,sweetness and power, 
possesses the disadvantage of restricting the variety of colour and ex- 
pression. Individual timbres lose their characteristics when associated 
with others. Hence such combinations should be handled with 
extreme care. Phrases or melodies demanding diversity of ex- 
pression alone should be entrusted to solo instruments of simple timbres. 
The same applies to the coupling of two instruments of the same 
kind, such as 2 flutes, 2 oboes, 2 clarinets, 2 bassoons. The quality 
of tone will lose nothing of its individuality, and will gain in power, 
but its capacity for expression will be diminished accordingly. An 

— 49 — 

instrument enjoys greater independence and freedom when used 
as a solo than when it is doubled. The use of doubling and 
mixed timbres is naturally more frequent in loud passages than in 
soft ones, also where expression and colour is broad rather than 
individual or intimate in character. 

I cannot refrain from mentioning how greatly I dislike jlhe method of dupli- 
cating all the wood-wind, in order to balance a group of strings, reinforced 
out of all reason, to suit the ever-growing dimensions of concert halls. I am 
convinced that, artistically speaking, a limit should be set to the size of both 
concert room and orchestra. The music performed at these super-concerts 
must be specially composed on a plan of its own — a subject which cannot 
be considered here. 

Combination in octaves. 

When the melody is entrusted to two wood-wind instruments 

in octaves, the usual arrangement producing natural resonance is: 

«rFl. Fl. PI. Ob. Ob. CI. la 
°LOb. CI. Fag. CI. Fag. Fag.J ^• 

The combination of flute and bassoon in octaves is fare on 
account of the widely separated registers of the two instruments. 
Deviation from the natural order, such as placing the bassoon 
above the clarinet or oboe, the clarinet above the oboe or flute 
etc., creates an unnatural resonance occasioned by the confusion 
of registers, the instrument of lower compass playing in its high 
register and vice versa. The lack of proper relationship between 
the different tone qualities then becomes apparent. 

No. 56. Spanish Capriccio [o] — q^J 8. 
No. 57. Snegourotchka \2m\ — ^n^^homj^- 
*No. 58. Sheherazade, 3i^ movement [e] — ^]-] 8. 


Pan Voyevoda [T£] — ^[-J 8. 
ci. -I « 


Tsar Saltan 


No. 59. Vera Scheloga [ao] — pig.]^' likewise any number of 
examples in the scores of various composers. 

The use of two instruments of the same colour in octaves, e. g. 
2 flutes, 2 clarinets or 2 bassoons etc., if not exactly to be avoided 

— 50 — 

is certainly not to be recommended, as the instruments, playing 
in different registers will not correspond one with the other. Ne- 
vertheless this method may be safely employed when stringed in- 
struments, arco or pizzicato double the two members of the wood- 
wind, and especially in the middle compass. The process is most 
satisfactory for repeated notes or sustained passages. 

The May Night, Act I |T| — g;,}] 8. 
* Sadko, after [T59] — gj; ,[] 3, doubled by pizz. strings. 

* Servilia, after [21] — ^^|; jj] 8 -f pizz. strings. 

Instruments of the same branch playing in octaves, e. g. 

f. fFag. CI. Ob. Small cl. Flute Picc.1 „ 

LC-Fag. Cl. basso Eng. horn Clar. Alto Fl. Fl. J ® 

always produce a good effect. 

Snegourotchka \^ — pj'^'''] 8 (cf. Ex. 15). 
The Tsar's Bride [Tii] — ^j"'] 8. 
Tsar Saltan [2T6] — ^j|=''-] 8 (cf. Ex. 36). 
Sadko, after [59] S^^" ^i-] 

Legend of Kitesh [240] — c%g] ^ (cf- Ex. 21). 

No 60. Mlada, Act III, before [44] - ^^-^ j^^ J 8. 

As in the strings, so in the wood-wind it is advisable to double 
in octaves any melody situated in the extremely high or low 
compass; an octave lower in the first case, an octave higher in 
the second. Thus the piccolo will be doubled by the flute, oboe 
or clarinet an octaVe lower; the double bassoon will be doubled 
by bassoon, clarinet or bass clarinet an octave higher. 

a fPicc. Pice. Picc.1 ^ 
°Lf1. Ob. Cl. J®- 

^ [Fag. Bass cl. CI. Cl. Fagr. Fag. ~| ^ 

Lc-Fag-. Fag. Fag. Bass cl. Fag. Bass cl.J 


* Tsar Saltan 


Pice"! « 
~ Ob. J ^• 

*No. 61. Mlada, Act II, Lithuanian dance [iFI — ^jf^:, ,1 8 

Small cl.J 

— 51 — 


* Mixed qualities of tone may be employed in doubling in oc- 
taves, the above remarks still holding good. 

Examples : 
Pan Voyevoda [T34] - g j] ^„'^. horn] ^ (cf. Ex. 7). 

No. 62. Servilia [m] - \ g; + f^^_ ,^^ J 8. 

No. 63. The Tsar's Bride [120] - ^ Fi- + Ob^^ ^ ^^^ ^^^ J 8 

.M/arf., ActIII0-S:i^rssci.]^ 

Doubling in two, three and four octaves. 

In such cases the student should follow the above-mentioned 

rules, and should take care not to infringe the natural order: 

Fl. Ob. Fi. Fl. 18 
In 3 octaves: Ob. ci. Ci. Ob. 

Cl. Fag-. Fag. Fag.J°' 

Fl. ]8 
In 4 octaves: ^l]8 

Fag.] 8. 

Mixed timbres may also be employed. 


No. 64. Spanish Capriccio [p] — melody in 4 octaves: 

Pice. 1 8 

2 Fl. i „ 

2 Ob. + C1.J * 
Fag. J 8. 

The Tsar's Bride [l4i — ; melody in 3 octaves. 
* Legend of Kitesh 


2 Gl. 

Bass cl. 1 
D. bassoonJ ° 


*No. 65. Antar, (l5i version) 3:^ movement, the beginning — 

Pice. +2F1.]8 

2 Ob. -4- 2 Cl.] „ also C , melody in 4 octaves (piccolo in the upper 
2 Fag.' J8; ' — I 


*Mlada, Act III, after 




Eng. horn) ^^ 

Pice.] 8 

No. 66. Sheherazade, 3i^ movement Q — Ci. 1^ 

' — ' Cl. Ill 8- 

Examples of melody doubled in five octaves are extremely rare; 
in such cases the strings participate in the process. 


52 — 

Melody in thirds and sixths. 

Melodic progression in thirds and sixths demands either two 

instruments of the same colour (2 Fl., 2 Ob., 2 CI., 2 Fag.), or 

instruments of different colours in the normal order of register: 

FI. Fl. Ob. Cl. Ob. 1 

Ob. CI. Cl. Fag. Fag.J 

3 (6). 

If this order is inverted, e. g. p,^' p,'; q.^'] 3 (6), a strained and 
forced resonance is created. For progressions in thirds, the best 
method, from the standpoint of equality in tone is to use instru- 
ments of the same kind in pairs; for progressions in sixths in- 
struments of different kinds are more suitable, but both courses 
are good and useful. They may also be employed for progressions 
in thirds and sixths, or thirds, fifths and sixths mixed, as for 



Legend of Kitesh 



different wind instruments in turn. 

The May Night, Act III [g\ — g;] 3. 

SadkO 1 2 79-280 1 — ^[;] 3 (6). 

No. 67. Spanish Capriccio, before 
thirds and sixths. 

various wood-wind in 

Servilia [228] — ^];] 3 and ^j;] 3. 

The Golden Cockerel [232] — \ ^'^ J 6. 



All wood-wind in turn, simple timbres. 
When the doubled parts progress in thirds or sixths, the 
following method is advisable: 

R+obJ ^ ^^) °'" f1: t G1-] ^ ^^^ ^*''" ^' ""^^ ^'• 

Fl. + Ob.] , (f. „, Ob. + F1.1 ^ ,.. . 
In the case of tripling the following arrangement may be adopted: 

Fl. + Ob. + C1.1 3 ... Ob. + 2 Fl.-] ... 
Fl. + Ob. + Cl.J ^ ^^' ^^ Ob. + 2 Cl.J "^ ^^' ^^'^' 


* No. 68. The Christmas Night [Tst] — gj; + g[;] 3. 

* Legend of Kitesh [202-203J different mixed timbres. 

j FFfPiiFfF F 

— 53 — 

Thirds and sixths together. 

Apart from the obvious dis- 

Fl. Ob. 

Ob. or CI. , there are certain 

CI. Fag. 

complicated methods which involve doubling: 

Upper part. Ob. + FI. 
Middle „ Fl. +C1. 
Lower „ Ob. + CI. 

The following is a complex instance somewhat vague in cha- 

,— , Ob. PU 

No. 69. Legend of Kitesh \35\ — Ob. + Ci. and Fl. +0b. 
^ ' I — ' ci. Ob. 

Melody in the brass^ 

The natural scale, the only one which brass instruments had 
at their disposal prior to the invention of valves was: 

2 3* 

5 e « » to ("' '^ :i 

i^ « ^> 

- - ^^ 

- T5 

giving, in two part harmony: 

With the help of rhythm, these component parts have given rise to 
a whole series of themes and phrases named fanfares, trumpet calls 
or flourishes, best adapted to the character of brass insfruments. 

In modern music, thanks tp the introduction of valves, this scale 
is now possible in all keys for every chromatic brass instrument, 
without it being necessary to change the key, and the addition of 
a few notes foreign to the natural scale has enriched the possi- 
bilities of these flourishes and fanfares, and endowed them with 
greater variety of expression. 

These phrases, either as solos, or in two or three parts, fall specially to 
the lot of the trumpets and horns, but they may also be given to the 
trombones. The full, clear, ringing notes of the middle and upper 
register of horns and trumpets are best suited to figures of this 

— 54 — 




— Trumpets. 
The Christinas Night[^ — Horn, Trumpets. 
Verra Scheloga, be^nnning of Overture, and after [45] — Horn, 

Ivan the Terrible, Act III [T| — Cornet. 
Snegoiirotchka [T55] ^- Trumpets. 

No. 70. Legend of Kitesh [^s] an-d elsewhere. — 3 Trumpets, 
4 Horns. 

— 2 Trombones, Trumpet. 

2 Horns and J{Z^^^^] ^ (^f. fur- 



Pan Voyevoda 

* The Golden Cockerel 
ther on). 

After fanfare figures, those melodies best suited to the brass 
quality are those of an unmodulated diatonic character, rousing 
and triumphant in the major key, dark and gloomy in the minor. 

Examples : 
No. 71. Sadko [342] — Trumpet. 
Sadko, before 


No. 72. Snegourotchka 
Russian Easter Fete 
Spanish Capriccio 



Trombones (cf. Ex. 27). 
— Trumpet. 
- Trombone. 
Alternative use in the horn of open 

and stopped notes (cf. Ex. 44). 

Jvan the Terrible, Act II, before [It] 
3 Horns a little further on. 

Mlada, Act II 

Bass trumpet, and 


Bass trumpet (cf. Ex. 46). 

The genial and poetic tone of the horn in piano passages 
affords greater scope in the choice of melodies and phrases that 
may be entrusted to this instrument. 

The May Night, Overture [T3]. 
The Christmas Night |T| . 
Pan Voyevoda 



No. 73. Antar 40 

— S5 — 

Melodies involving chromatic or enharmonic writing are much 
less suitable to the character of brass instruments. Nevertheless 
such melodies may sometimes be allotted to the brass, as in the 
music of Wagner, and the modern Italian realists, who however, 
carry the proceeding to extremes. Vigonrous phrases in the form 
of a fanfare, although introducing chromatic notes sound singu- 
larly beautiful on the brass. 



No. 74. Sheherazade, 22i movement 

As a general rule, brass instruments lack the capacity to express 
passion or geniality. Phrases charged with these sentiments be- 
come sickly and insipid when confided to the brass. Energetic power, 
free or restrained, simplicity and eloquence constitute the valuable 
qualities of this group. 

Brass in unison, in octaves,^ thirds and sixths. 

As, from its very nature, the brass is not called upon to realise 
a wide range of expression, kindred instruments of one group 
may be employed solo, as well as in unison. The combination 
of 3 trombones or 4 horns in unison is frequently met with, and 
produces extreme power and resonance of tone. 

Snegourotchka [J] — 4 Horns (cf. Ex. 15). 

Snegourotchka 199 — 4 Horns and 2 Trumpets. 

Sadko 175 — 1, 2, 3 Trumpets. 

No. 75. Sadko [aosj (1) — 3 Trombones. 

No. 76. The May Night, beginning of Act III — 1, 2, 3, 4 Horns. 

Legend of Kitesh, end of Act I — 4 Horns (cf. Ex. 70). 

No. 77. Sheherazade, 411i movement p. 204 — 3 Trombones. 

Mlada; Lithuanian dance — 6 Horns (cf. Ex. 61). 

(1) The composer has emen ded the score in the following manner: from 

, and also from the fifth to the ninth bar 

the fifth to the ninth bar after 



, the three clarinets play in unison, the trumpet being marked forte 
instead of fortissimo; in the example, the first of these passages is corrected 
according to the composer's altoration. (Editor's note.) 

— 56 — 

Owing to the resonant power of the entire group, the equality 

and even gradation of tone between the dark colour of the deep 

compass and the bright quality of the upper register, the use of 

brass instruments of the same kind in octaves, thirds or sixths 

invariably leads to satisfactory results. For the same reason the 

employment of brass instruments of different kinds, arranged 

according to normal order of register: 

Trumpet Trumpet Trombone 2 Trombones 2 Trumpets 2 Horns 

2 Horns Trombone Tuba Trombone -f- Tuba 2 Trombones Tuba 

is likewise successful whether the instruments are doubled or not. 

Another possible method, though not so reliable, is to combine 

horns (above) with trombones, exclusively in octaves: 

2 Horns ] e nr ^ Horns 1 ^ 
1 Trombone] ° "' 2 Trombones] 

Sadko, before {m} - t™-p=;] «. 

Snegourotchka \^ - ^Trllte + Tuba] «■ 

Ivan the Terrible, Act 111 [To] ' ^^^S^j;^ + ■^^™''='] 8 (cf. Ex, 38 
The Golden Cockerel [T26] - '\\lZt,V 

Cf. also Snegourotchka |32S-^26| — TromboneJ ' (E"- ^^)- 


Melody in different groups of instruments 
combined togethier. 

A. Combination of wind and brass in unison. 

The combination of a wood-wind and brass instrument produces 
a complex resonance in which the tone of the brass predominates. 
This resonance is naturally -more powerful than that of each instru- 
ment taken separately, but slightly sweeter than the brass instru- 
ment alone. The tone of the wood-wind blends with that of the 
brass, softens and rarefies it, as in the process of combining 
two wood-wind instruments of different colour. Instances of such 
doubling are fairly numerous, especially in jorte passages. The 
trumpet is the instrument most frequently doubled: Trumpet -|- CI., 
Trumpet + Ob., Trumpet -f Fl., as well as Trumpet -r CI. + Ob. + Fl.; 

— 57 — 

the horn, less often: Horn + CI., Horn + Fag. Trombones and Tuba 
may also be doubled: Trombone -|- Fag., Tuba -f Fag. Combining 
the Eng. horn, bass clarinet and double bassoon with the brass, in 
corresponding registers, presents the same characteristics. 


Legend of Kitesh [56j — Trombone + Eng. horn. 
* Mlada, Act III, before [34] — 3 Trombones + Bass cl. 
As a rule, the addition of a wind to a brass instrument yields 
a finer legato effect than when the latter instrument plays alone. 

B. Combination of wind and brass in octaves. 

Doubling the horns in octaves by clarinets, oboes or flutes often 
replaces the combination 

1 Trumpet "I « 

1 Horn (or 2 Horns)J °' 

This is done when it is a question of introducing a rich tone into 

the upper octave which the trumpet is not capable of imparting. 

If a single horn is used, the upper part is allotted to 2 clarinets, 

2 oboes, or 2 flutes. But it there are two horns playing the lower 

octave in unison, three or four wind instruments will be necessarj' 

above, especially in forte passages: 

rz Ob. or 2 Cl. or 2 Fl. j 1 Ob. + 1 Cl.l g. 2 Fl. + 2 Cl.-| g 
^ Ll Horn ^^ ^®" ^^ 1 Horn J "• 2 Horns J ^' 

To double a trumpet in the upper octave three or four wind instru- 
ments are required, but in the top register two flutes will suffice. 

2F1. 2 Fl. 


^^^P"- ^ 

Trumpet. Trumpet. 

Wood-wind instruments should not be used to double a trombone 
in the octave above; trumpets are more suitable. 

Examples of doubling in octaves: 

* Snegourotchka \n\ - Zrit^'']^- 

* Legend of Tsar Saltan, before [18O — Y.^.J ^N 8. 


— 58 — 

* Mention should also be made of mixed timbres (wood and brass) 
in progression in octaves. 


Mlada, Act III, beginning of Scene III - xibaTci^^'' ''] ^• 

No. 78. Mlada, Act III, after [25] - ISstV'rH^t +7^X00] « 

No. 79. Mlada, Act III, before 35 — general unison. 

(low register). 

When it is desired to distribute the melody over three or four 
octaves, it is difficult to achieve perfect balance of tone. 


Pice. 1 fi 

* Sheherazade, 4± movement, 15lli bar after fwl — 2 Fi. + 2 Ob.j ^ 

' — ' 2 Trumpets J 8. 
Pice. ] 8 

* Legend of Tsar Saltan 228 — 2Fi. + 2 0b. \ 

Trumpet + Eng. horn J ° 

C. Combination of strings and wind. 

In commencing this section of the work I consider it necessary 
to lay down the following fundamental rules which apply equally 
to melody, harmony, counterpoint and polyphonic writing. 

All combinations of strings and wood-wind are good; a wind 
instrument progressing in unison with a stringed instrument in- 
creases the resonance of the latter and amplifies its tone, while 
the quality of the strings softens that of the wood-wind. In such 
combinations the strings will predominate provided that the two' 
instruments are of equal power, e. g. when violins are coupled with 
an oboe, a bassoon with the 'cellos. If several wind instruments 
play in unison with one group of strings, the latter will be over- 
powered. As a rule all combinations refine the characteristics of 
each instrument taken separately, the wood-wind losing more than 
the strings. 

Doubling in unison. 

The best and most natural combinations are between instruments 
whose registers correspond the nearest: 
Vni-f FI. (Bass fl., pice), Vni+Ob., Vni-hCl. (small CI.); 
Violas 4- Ob. (Eng. horn), Violas + CI., Violas + Fag. 
'Cellos + CI. (Bass cl.), 'Cellos + Fag.; 


D. basses -\- Bass cl., D. basses + Fag.; D. basses -f- C-fag. 

The object of these combinations is: a) to obtain a new timbre 
of definite colour; b) to strengthen the resonance of the strings; 
c) to soften the quality of the wood-wind. 

Snegourotchka |~5~| 

No. 80. 
No. 81. 
No. 82. 
No. 83. 

Examples : 
'Cellos -f Violas + Eng. horn (cf. Ex. 15). 
28J — Violas -f Ob. + Eng. horn, 
[m] - Vni 1 -f II + Ob. + Cl. 

Vni I + II + 'Cellos + Eng. horn (cf. Ex. 17). 
Violas -f Cl. 


The May Night, Act III 

— Vni+Ob. 

— Violas + Eng. horn. 

— Violas -j- Eng. horn. 




Tsar Saltan [so] — 
No. 84. Tsar Saltan 
+ Fag. 

Tsar Saltan 

Vni G string + Fl. 
VniI + II-f2 Cl. 
lOlii bar. — 


'Cellos + Violas + 3 CL 


— Vni detached -f Fl. legato. 
The Tsar's Bride [To] Violas + 'Cellos + Fag. 
Antar, 4^- movement 


Sheherazade, Si^ movement 

'Cellos + 2 Fag. 

— Violas -|- Ob. + Eng. horn. 

Parts doubled in octaves. 
Examples of strings in octaves doubled by wood-wind also in 
octaves are numerous, and do not require special description; they 
are used according to the rules already laid down. The following 
are examples of melody distributed over 1, 2, 3 and 4 octaves: 

Examples : 

No. 85. Ivan the Terrible, beginning of Overture — 
Vni 1 + II + 2 Cl. ] o 

Violas + 'Cellos + 2 Fag.J °' 

No. 86. Saiko [U - StSi + C-fag ]«• 





D. basses -f" C 
'Cellos HFagf. ig 
D. basses + C-fag.J 
Violas + 2 Cl. 
'Cellos + D. basses + 2 Fag 



The Tsar's Bride 


'Cellos + Fag. ] 
D. basses + Fag.J 

— 60 — 

The Tsar's Bride [sT] — ^J|,j div. ']:^i,]B. 



In three and four octaves: 

Vns + 3 Fl. 1 c 
Servilia 93 — Violas + 2 Ob. i 
'Cellos 4- 2 Fag.J 8- 

Vnl I -f- Pice. la 

No. 87. Kashtchei 105 — vm ii -V Fi. + Ob. \^ 

Violas + 'Cellos + 2 Cl. + Eng. horn + Fag.J 8. 

Vnl I + Fl. 18 

Shihirazade, 3^ movement M — Vm ii + Ob. { „ 

' — ' 'Cellos + Engl, hornj 8. 

Examples of melody in thirds and sixths: 


No. 88. Servilia |ni| — Strings and wood-wind in thirds. 

No. 89. „ 1 126 1 — same combination, in thirds and sixths. 



The same. 

It is necessary* to pay more attention to cases where, of the two 
parts in octaves, only one is doubled. When this method is applied 
to a melody in the soprano register it is better to allow the wood- 
wind to progress in octaves, the lower part only being doubled 
by one of the string groups; p^+YnJ^- Ob. (Ci.) + Vn J ^• 

Tsar Saltan [m\ — v^i'i +7i + Ob.] ^ (^f- ^^- 1^)- 

*No.90. Shdhirazade, 4«i movement [u] - ?ceiios + 2 Horns] 8- 
In the case of a melody in the low register demanding a sweet 
soft tone, the violoncellos and double basses should be made to 
progress in octaves, the former* doubled by a bassoon, the latter 
not doubled at all: d ^"as^ses ^*^ ] ^' Sometimes a composer is 
obliged to use this method on account of the very low register of 
the double bass, especially if a double bassoon is not included in 
his orchestral scheme. (1) 

(1) The process of doubling strings and wood-wind in octaves: y,' 8, 
Cellos ^' ^^^'^ otten used by the classics to obtain balance of tone, is not 
to be recommended, as the tone quality of the two groups is so widely different. 
As a result of the ever-increasing tendency to profusion of colour, this method 
has recently come into fashion again, notably among the younger French 
composers. (Editor's note.) 

No. 91. Tsar Saltan 


— 61 — 


Violas + Fa,g. 1 g 
— 'Cellos + Fag.] 
D. Basses 1 ^• 

D. Combination of strings and brass. 

Owing to the dissimilarity between the quality of string and brass 
tone, the combination of these two groups in unison can never 
yield such a perfect blend as that produced by the union of strings 
and wood-wind. When a brass and a stringed instrument progress 
in unison, each can be heard separately, but the instruments in 
each group which can be combined with the greatest amount of 
success are those whose respective registers correspond the most 
nearly; Violin + Trumpet; Viola + Horn; ^^^^^,^^ + jibf °"'' (^^r 
heavy massive effects). 

The combination of horns and 'cellos, frequently employed, pro- 
duces a beautifully blended, soft quality of tone. 


Tsar Saltan 29 — Vnil + II + Horn. 

* No. 92. The Golden Cockerel 98 — Violas con sord. + Horn. 

E. Combination of the three groups. 

The combination of members of the three groups in unison is 
more common, the presence of the wood-wind imparting a fuller 
and more evenly blended tone. The question as to which group 
will predominate in timbre depends upon the number of instruments 
employed. The most natural combinations, and those most generally 
in use are: Vni-[- Ob. (Fr., CI.) -f- Trumpet; Violas (or 'Cellos) + CI. 
(Eng. horn) + Horn; D.talses + 2 Fag. + 3 Trombones ^- Tuba. 

Such groupings are used for preference in loud passages or for 
a heavy piano effect. 


No. 93—94. Snegourotchka [218] and [2T9] — Vni I + II + CI. 
+ Horn and Vni I + II -}- CI. + Trumpet. 

— 62 — 



No. 95. Snegourotchka 
Pan Voyevoda [224] - 

Violas + Trombones 1 g 

'Cellos + Trombone + Bass Cl.J (cf. Ex. i2). 

D, basses + Tuba + Fag. J 8 

'Cellos + Violas + Fag. + Trombone 
D. basses -|- Fag. -f- Tuba 


Vni+ Fag. + Horn + Vn. + CI. -j 
pet. (Stopped notes in the brass.) 

Violas + 2 CI. -|- Bass trumpet 


Mlada, Act III, after 


*No.96. Ivan the Terrible, Act III, before [66] — 
Bass CI. + Horn 1 ,, 

D. basses + G-fag. + TubaJ 

* Ivan the Terrible, Overture, 41!i bar after [T] — Violas -\- 'Cellos 

+ Eng. horn + 2 CI. + Bass CI. + 2 Fag. + 4 Horns. (The melody 

simplified in the horns.) 

Chapter III. 


General observations. 

The art of orchestration demands a beautiful and well-balanced 
distribution of chords forming the harmonic texture. Moreover, 
transparence, accuracy and purity in the movement of each part 
are essential conditions if satisfactory resonance is to be obtained. 
No perfection in resonance can accrue from faulty progression 
of parts. 

Note. There are people who consider orchestration simply as the art of 
selecting- instruments and tone qualities, believing that if an orchestral score 
does not sound well, it is entirely due to the choice of instruments and timbres. 
But unsatisfactory resonance is often solely the outcome of faulty handling of 
parts, and such a composition will continue to sound badly whatever choice 
of instruments is made. So, on the other hand, it often happens that a passage 
in which the chords are properly distributed, and the progression of parts 
correctly handled, will sound equally well if played by strings, wood-wind or brass. 

The composer should picture to himself the exact harmonic 
formation of the piece he intends to orchestrate. If, in his rough 
sketch, there exist any uncertainty as to the number or movement 
of harmonic parts, he is advised to settle this at once. It is 
likewise essential for him to form a clear idea as to the con- 
struction and musical elements of the piece, and to realise the 
exact nature and limitations of the themes, phrases and ideas he 
is going to employ. Every transition from one order of harmonic 
writing to another, from four-part harmony to three, or from five- 
part harmony to unison etc., must coincide with the introduction 
of a new idea, a fresh theme or phrase; otherwise the orchestra- 
tor will encounter many unforeseen and insurmountable difficul- 

— 64 — 

ties. For example, if, during a passage written in four parts a chord 
in five-part harmony is introduced, a fresh instrument must needs 
be added to play this particular fifth part, and this addition may 
easily damage the resonance of the chord in question, and render 
the resolution of a discord or the correct progression of parts 

Number of harmonic parts — Duplication. 

In the very large majority of cases harmony is written in four 
parts; this applies not only to single chords or a succession 
of them, but also to the formation of the harmonic basis. Harmony 
which at first sight appears to comprise 5, 6, 7 and 8 parts, is 
usually only tour part harmony with extra parts added. These 
additions are nothing more than the duplication in the adjacent 
upper octave of one or more of the three upper parts forming the 
original harmony, the bass being doubled in the lower octave only. 
The following diagrams will explain my meaning: 

A. Close part writing 

Four part harmony. 

Duplication of 1 part. 


Duplication of 2 parts. 


n I I TT 

Duplication of 3 parts. 







& " t 



B. Widely-divided part-writing. 

Pour part harmony. Duplication of 1 part. Duplication of 2 parts. 

A> <> i 




f— o — 1 
— n — 

— » 


i—o 1 


— Q 


1" 1 


— e — 

— o — 

Tl — 1 


— o 



— « 



, >■ , 

Note. In widely-spaced harmony only the soprano and alto parts may be 
doubled in octaves. Duplicating the tenor part is to be avoided, as close 
writing is thereby produced, and doubling the bass part creates an effect of 
heaviness. The bass part should never mix with the others: 


65 — 




On account of the distance between the bass and the three other 
parts, only partial dupHcation is possible. 




[t ;;"i ^ 4 ' ^=^ 

Note. Notes in unison resulting from correct duplication need not be avoided, 
for although the tone in such cases is not absolutely uniform, the ear will be 
satisfied with the correct progression of parts. 

Consecutive octaves between the upper parts are not permissible: 



Consecutive fifths resulting from the duplication of the three 
upper parts moving in chords of sixths are of no importance: 


The bass of an inversion of the dominant chord should never 
be doubled in any of the upper parts: 









^ §.. 








This applies also to other chords of the seventh and diminished 

— 66 











The rules of harmony cpncerning sustained and pedal passages 
apply with equal force to 'orchestral writing. As regards passing 
and auxiliary notes, ecliappees, considerable licence is permitted 
in rapid passages of different texture: 

One textuce: 

A different one: 

II rrrrrifrr 


A different 

A certain figure and its essentials^ in simplified form, may 
proceed concurrently, as in the following example: 

One texture: 

A different one: 

A third: 



Upper and inner pedal notes are more effective on the orchestra 
than in pianoforte or chamber music, owing to the greater variety 
of tone colour: 



— 67 — 

In Vol. II of the present work many examples of the above 
methods will be found. 

Distribution of notes in chords. 

The normal order of sounds or the natural harmonic scale: 


'A ': i'. 

may serve as a guide to the orchestral arrangement of chords. 
It will be seen that the widely-spaced intervals lie in the lower 
part of the scale, gradually becoming closer as the upper register 
is approached: 





The bass should rarely lie at a greater distance than an octave 

from the part directly above it (tenor harmony). It is necessary 

to make sure that the harmonic notes are not lacking in the upper 

To be avoided: 








The use of sixths in the upper parts, and the practice of 
doubling the upper note in octaves are sometimes effective methods: 



O : " 

y t\ — f 


— 68 — 

When correct progression increases the distance between the 
top and bottom notes of the upper parts, this does not matter: 




But it would be distinctly bad to fill in the second chord this: 

Not good: 








Hence it follows that the distribution of intermediate parts is a 
question of the greatest importance. Nothing is worse than wriiing 
chords, the upper and lower parts of which are separated by 
wide, empty intervals, especially in forte passages; in piano passages 
such distribution may be possible. Progression in contrary motion, 
the upper and lower parts diverging by degrees gives rise to the 
gradual addition of extra parts occupying the middle register: 


i ,1 i j i - jj i f ff - 



C2 t 



When the voices converge, the middle parts are eliminated one 
by one: 


? i f. y 




— 69 — 

String harmony. 

It is an incontrovertible rule that the resonance of different 
harmonic parts must be equally balanced, but this balance will be 
less noticeable in short sharp chords than in those which are 
connected and sustained. Both these cases will be studied sepa- 
rately. In the first case, in order to increase the number of harmonic 
parts, each instrument in the string group may be provided with 
double notes or chords of three and four notes. In the second 
case, the resources are limited to double notes aniSy or division 
of parts. 

A. Short chords. Chords of three or four notes can only be 
executed rapidly on the strings. 

Note. It is true that the two upper notes- of a chord can be sustained and 
held a long- time; this, however, involves complications and will be considered 

Short chords, arco, only sound well when played forte (sf), and 
when they can be supported by wind instruments. In the execution 
of double notes and chords of three and four notes on the strings, 
balance, perfect distribution of tone, and correct progression of 
parts are of minor importance. What must be considered before 
everything is the resonance of* the chords themselves, and the degree 
of ease with which they can be played. Those comprising notes on the 
gut strings are the most powerful. Chords played on several strings 
are usually assigned to isi and 2^ violins and violas, the different 
notes being divided between them according to ease in execution 
and the demands of resonance. On account of its low register the 
'cello is rarely called upon to play chords on three or four strings, 
and is usually allotted the lowest note of the chord in company 
with the double bass. Chords on the latter instrument are even 
more uncommon, but it may supply the octave on an uncovered 


No. 97. Snegourotchka[^; cf. also before [ho] and before [200] . 

* Spanish Capriccio, before [V] (cf. Ex. 67). 

Sheherazade, 2^ movement \V\ (cf. Ex. 19.) 

*No. 98. Tsar Saltan [Tis]; cf. also | i4i | and before 


— 70 — 

Isolated chords may be added to a melodic figure in the upper 
part, accentuating, sforzando, certain rhythmical moments. 


No. 99. Snegourotchka, before 126 ; cf. also 


B. Sustained and tremolando chords. Chords sustained for 
a shorter or longer period of time, or tremolando passages, often 
used as a substitute, demand perfect balance of tone. Taking for 
granted that the different members of the string group are equal 
in power, the parts being written according to the usual order of 
register, (cf. Chap. I), it is patent that a passage in close four-part 
harmony, with the bass in octaves will also be uniformly resonant. 
When it is necessary to introduce notes to fill up the empty 
middle register, the upper parts being farther distant from the bass, 
doubled notes on the violins or violas should be used, or on both 
instruments together. The method of dividing strings, which is 
sometimes adopted, should be avoided in such cases, as certain 
parts of the chord will be divided and others will not; but, on the 
other hand, if a passage in six and seven-part harmony be written 
entirely for strings divided in the same manner, the balance of 
tone will be completely satisfactory, e.g., 

H5v /Vnil 
<Hv. (vnil 

Hi„ /VnsII 

.. /Violas I 
°'^' \ Violas II 

If the harmony in the three upper parts, thus strengthened, is 
written for divided strings, the 'cellos and basses, playing non divisi 
will prove a trifle heavy; their tone must therefore be eased, either 
by marking the parts down or reducing the number of players. 

In the case of sustained chords or forte tremolando on two strings, 
the progression of parts is not always according to rule, the intervals 
chosen being those which are the easiest to play. 


No. 100. The Christmas Night i6i — Full divisi 

No. 101. „ „ „ [210] -Vi°jf^^3^;;;:} 4 part harmony 


— 71 — 

No. 102. Snegourotchka |i 87— 188| — Four-part harmony, Vn?. I, 

Vni II, Violas and Violoncellos. 
„ [243] — 4 Solo 'cellos divisi. 

Sheherazade, 2^ movement, beginning. — 4 D. bass soli div. 

(cf. Ex. 40). 

Chords on all strings (cf. Ex. 243). 
- Harmonic basis in the strings. 

The Tsar's Bride 


No. 103. Legend of Kitesh 


— (cf. Ex. 21). 
„ „ „ [283J — Harmonic basis in the strings 
(cf. Ex. 2). 
No. 104. The Golden Cockerel \J] — Basis in the strings. 

„ „ „ [T25] — Undulating rhythm in the 

strings as harmonic basis (cf. Ex. 271). 

In a forte or sfp chord, where one or two of the upper notes is 
held, either sustained or tremolando, the balance of tone must still 
be maintained, as in the following example: 




D. basses 

















Wood-wind harmony. 

Before entering upon this section of the work I would remind 
the reader of the general principles laid down in the beginning of 
the chapter. 

Harmonic texture, composed of plain chords or ornamental designs, 
simple or contrapuntal in character, must possess a resonance equally 
distributed throughout. This may be obtained by the following means: 

— 72 — 

1. Instruments forming chords must be used continuously in the 
same way during a given passage, that is to say they must be 
doubled or not throughout, except when one of the harmonic parts 
is to be made prominent: 

2 Fi 

;i Ob \ 

To be avoided: :|: :^ciar. 4 - ^„ j r^"^"" ^ ''1 

2 01 
2 Fag 

2. The normal order of register must be followed, except in the 
case of crossing or enclosure of parts, which will be discussed 
later on: 

To be avoided: ^ »i^ Ig" " 




3. Corresponding or adjacent registers should be made to co- 
incide except for certain colour effects: 

^1fi . 

The second flute will sound loo weak and 
To be avoided: ( ft>Q^ro the oboes too piercing. 

4. Concords (octaves, thirds and sixths) and not discords (fifths, 
fourths, seconds and sevenths), should be given to instruments of 
the same kind or colour, except when discords are tc be empha- 
sised. This rule should be specially observed in writing for the 
oboe with its penetrating quality of tone: 

To be avoided: ffi o^^ "^*^ 
y Ci.[^ - 

Four-part and three-part harmony. 

Harmonic writing for the wood-wind may be considered from 
two points of view: a) instruments in pairs, 2F1., 2 0b., 2 CI., 2 Fag.; 
and b) instruments in three's, 3 Fl., 2 Ob., Eng. horn, 3 CI., 2 Fag., 

A. In pairs. There are three ways of distribution: 1. Super- 
position or overlaying (strictly following the normal order of register), 

— 73 — 

2. Crossing, and 3. Enclosure of parts. The last two methods 
involve a certain disturbance of the natural order of register: 

Overlaying. Crossing. Enclosure. 

In choosing one of these three methods the following points 
must not be forgotten: a) the register of a particular isolated chord; 
the soft and weak register of an instrument should not be coupled 
with the powerful and piercing range of another: 

Overlaying. Crossing. Enclosure. 


Oboe too Low notes Bassoon too 
piercing of the flute prominent, 
too weak 

b) In a succession of chords the general progression of parts 
must be considered; one tone quality should be devoted to the 
stationary and another to the moving parts: 

When chords are in widely-divided four-part harmony notes may 
be allotted in pairs to two different tone qualities, adhering to the 
normal order of register: 




Any other distribution will result unquestionably in a grievous 
lack of relationship between registers: 

To be avoided: 


— 74 — 

If one tone quality is to be enclosed, it must be between two 
different timbres: 




Ob. o 

•/Fag- ■»• 


Fag ^CF 



It is possible to lend four distinct timbres to a chord in widely- 
divided four-part harmony, though such a chord will possess no 
uniformity in colour; but the higher the registers of the different 
instruments are placed, the less perceptible becomes the space 
which separates them: . 



Ub . o 

Fl. -» 


Cl- ^ 

Fag. TJ 

L'l. o 

Ka £•.•»• 
Fairlygood Better 


Still better 

The use of four different timbres in close four-part harmony is 
to be avoided, as the respective registers will not correspond: 








Note. In Mozart and Saliiri, which is only scored for 1 Fl., 1 Ob., 1 Cl. 
and 1 Fag., wood-wind chords in four-part harmony are of necessity devoted 
to these four different timbres. 

The same rules apply to writing in three-part harmony, which 
is the most customary form when it is a question of establishing 
a harmonic basis, the lowest register of which is entrusted to 
another group of instruments (strings arco or pizz., for example). 
Chords in three-part barm.ony are generally given to two instru- 
ments of one timbre and a third instrument of another, but never 
to three different timbres. Overlaying of parts is the best course 
to adopt: 

►]F1. F"'- 


75 — 

The use of crossing and enclosure of parts (which in a way 
amount to the same thing) must depend on the manner of their 



Enclosure ; 

.T^§ ij 8 l l u. [ 






B. Wood-wind in three's. Here the distribution of chords in 
close three-part harmony is self-evident; any grouping of three 
instruments of the same timbre is sure to sound well: 





§] » Clai 

t'l fr ■ 

;]2 Fl. 

i l^'-' ^s 

CI. pice. 






Fl.c-alto Cor.ingl. 

'^ '«.:::; j i &j^!!^! 


Overlaying of parts is the best method to follow in writing 
close four-part harmony; three instruments of the same timbre 
with a fourth instrument of another. Crossing and enclosure of 
parts may also be employed. Correspondence of timbres and the 
progression of remote /parts must be kept in mind: 



The method of using three instruments of the same timbre in 
widely-divided three-part harmony is inferior: 

«► Fl 
3 Fl ^ 



o-i 3 C I. 



" Ob. 


;]aF a g. 



Not good Better Better 

Not good Better 

76 — 

But if the third instrument is of low register (Bass Fl., Eng. 
horn, Bass cl., or C-fag.), the resonance will be satisfactory: 




*y Cl basbu " o 

] a Kgg. 




■*■ Coringl. 

Fl. t %alt 

In chords of four-part harmony, three instruments of th^ same 
timbre should be combined with a fourth instrument of another: 


:]^^--^- II : : ] 

«> (Jl-basGO 

5 Cor. ingl. 

\ i i Cl. 

«• C-fag-. 

o Cl-ba ^«o- 


^ la Ob. 

^ Uor. ing-l 
•»■ Cl 


Harmony in several parts. 

In writing chords of 5, 6, 7 and 8 part-harmony, whether they 
are independent, or constitute the harmonic basis, the student 
should follow the principles outlined in the previous chapter, 
dealing with the progression of wood-wind instruments in octaves. 
As the 5% 6111, 711i and 811i notes are only duplications in octaves 
of lower notes of the real harmony (in 4 parts), instruments 
should be chosen which combine amongst themselves to give the 
best octaves. The process of crossing and enclosure of parts 
may also be used. 

A. Wood-wind in pairs (close distribution): 

In widely-divided harmony chords in several parts are to be 
avoided as they will entail both close and extended writing: 

Note. In the majority of cases this distribution is employed when the t>vo 
upper harmonic parts have a special melodic duty to perform — this question 
is discussed above. 

— 77 

B. Wood-wind in three's: 


3 Fl 

Q13 Ob . 

8 Coritt fri^ 

b l a cji. II r o' 





3 Fl. 

] a Ob. 


LSSO «■ 



H CI. 



* >:«>-aff.[g' 

<» Cor, ingl. 

CI. basso 


l\-\ Myaff. 


j 2 Fag. 

ocibasso" z=: 

C- fag. 


Overlaying of parts is the most satisfactory method in dealing 
with close three-part harmony. Crossing of parts is not so 
favourable, as octaves will be produced contrary to the natural 
order of register: 



Here the arrangement 



is bad. 


Duplication of timbres. 

A. If the wood-wind is in pairs it is a good plan to mix the 
doubled timbres as much as possible: 


2 ..^0^-2 

J^ob.cnRiviu. | |«ot>ioi'^^^]|n^nri]>i} l| ^ 









In chords of four-part harmony the classical method may be 

.2 0b. 



— 78 — 

In this case, though the high C in the flute is fairly powerful, 
the resonance of the G and E in the oboes is softened by the 
duplication of the 2^ flute and 1^1 clarinet, while the C in the 
2^ clarinets (not doubled) is feeble in comparison with the other 
notes. In any case the two extreme parts are the thinnest and 
weakest in tone, the intermediate parts the fullest and strongest. 

B. Wood -wind in three's admit of perfectly balanced mixed 
timbres in chords of three-part harmony: 





3 0b.3Cl. 


m] I [jiin 



3Faff 3C1. 

These timbres may even originate from three-fold duplication; 




/' I ^^ 




1. Modern orchestrators do not allow any void in the inter- 
mediate parts in writing close harmony; it was permitted to some 
extent by the classics: 






These empty spaces create a bad effect especially in forte passages. 
For this reason widely-divided harmony, which is fundamentally 
based on the extension of intervals, can be used but seldom and 
only in piano passages. Close writing is the more frequent form 
in all harmony devoted to the wood-wind, forte or piano. 

2. As a general rule a chord of greatly extended range and in 
several parts is distributed according to the order of the natural 
scale, with wide intervals (octaves and sixths), in the bass part, 
lesser intervals (fifths and fourths) in the middle, and close inter- 
nals (3nli or 211^) in the upper register: 

— 79 — 



3 Fi 


Co r -inR' T^ 

' ■ ^ayn ( c . [ 




2 Fl. 

■c*. Fl.picc. 
B3 2F1 



I^] a Koff. 


! .} O b . 

'3 3 Faff , 

Xf C.-fag-. 

3. In many cases correct progression of parts demands that 
one of them should be temporarily doubled. In such cases the 
ear is reconciled to the brief overthrow of balance for the sake 
of a single part, and is thankful for the logical accuracy of the 
progression. The following example will illustrate my meanings 











In the second bar of this example the D is doubled in unison 
on account of the proximity of the three upper parts to their 
corresponding parts an octave lower. In the fourth bar the F is 
doubled in unison in both groups. 

4. The formation of the harmonic basis, which is essentially in 
four parts, does not by any means devolve upon the wood-wind 
alone. One of the parts is often devoted to the strings, arco or 
pizz. More frequently the bass part is treated separately, the 
chords of greater value in the three upper parts being allotted to 
the wood- wind. Then, if the upper part is assigned to a group 
of strings, there remairls nothing for the wind except the sustained 
harmony in the two middle parts. In the first case the three-part 
harmony in the wood-wind should form an independent whole, 
receiving no assistance from the bass; in this manner intervals of 
open fourths and fifths will be obviated. In the second case it 
is desirable to provide the intermediate parts with a moderately 
full tone, choosing no other intervals except seconds, sevenths, 
thirds or sixths. 

All that has been said with regard to the use of wood-wind in 
the formation of harmony, and the division of simple and mixed 

— 80 — 

timbres applies with equal force to sustained chords, or harmonic 
progressions interchanging rapidly with staccato chords. In short 
chords, separated by rests of some importance, the arrangement 
and division of timbres is not so perceptible to the ear, and pro- 
gression of parts attracts less attention. It would be useless, nay, 
impossible to examine the countless combinations of tone colour, 
all the varieties of duplication and distribution of chords. It has 
been my aim to denote the fundamental principles upon which to 
work, and to indicate the general rules to be followed. Once having 
mastered these, if the student devote a little time to the study of 
full scores, and listen to them on the orchestra, he will soon 
learn when certain methods should be used and when to adopt 
others. The pupil is advised, generally, to write for wood-wind 
in its normal order of distribution, to take heed that each parti- 
cular chord is composed entirely either of duplicated or non-dupli- 
cated parts, (except in certain cases resulting from progression), 
to use the methods of crossing and enclosure of timbres with full 
knowledge of what he is doing, and finally to concentrate his 
attention on close part-writing. 

Examples of wood-wind harmony: 
a) Independent chords. 

No. 105. The Christmas Night [hs] — CI., 2 Fag. 
No. 106. „ „ „ beginning — Ob., CI. Fag. (cross- 

ing of parts). 
Snegourotchka \^ — 2 CI., Fag. 

5«Lbar. — 2 Ob., 2 Fag. (cf. Ex. 136). 


*No. 107. Snegourotchka [T^ — Pice, 2 Fl. (tremolando) . 
No. 108. „ [2041 — 2 Fl., 2 Ob. (high register). 

No. 109. Shdherazade, beginning — Total wood-wind in different 

* Russian Easter Fite [a] — 3 Fl. tremolando (cf. Ex. 176). 

* Tsar Saltan [45] Ob., 2 Fag. 

No. 110. Tsar Saltan, before lis — mixed timbres 

No. 111. „ „ 115 , and other similar passages — very 

sweet effect of wood-wind in three's. 
„ [nT] - 2 Ob., 2 Fag. 


Sadko, Symphonic Tableau [T] — Ob., 2 CI., Fag. 
* Sadko, Opera [T] — Eng. horn, 2 CI. 

„ , before [T] — Total wood-wind. 

Chords in three-part harmony; simple 

No. 112. Sadko 
and mixed timbres 


*No. 113. The Tsar's Bride [126] Full wind. 
*No. 114. Legend of Kitesfi, before 

No. 115. 

90 — Enclosure of parts 
(Ob. I in the high register), 


No. 116. 

* The Golden Cockerel 



— Wind and brass 
[T67] — Full wind except oboe, 
with chorus. 
Legend of Kitesh [269] — Fl., CI., Fag. 

— Various wind instruments, 4 part 
harmony (cf. Ex. 271). 

— Ob., Eng. horn, Fag., C-fag;; cf. 
also [254] . 

No. 117. The Golden Cockerel, before [235] — Mixed timbre; 

2 Fag. form the bass, 
b) Harmonic basis (sometimes joined by the horns). 
The May Night, Act III [T] — 2 Fag., Eng. horn (cf. Ex. 18). 
3 Flutes. 

— 2 CI., high register, 
before [so] — 2 Fl., Fag. 




[Tst] - 2 Ob., 2 Fag. 

2 CI., low register (cf. Ex. 9). 

Fl., Eng. horn, CI., Fag. (cf. Ex. 26). 



No. 118. Snegourotchka |292| — Widely-divided harmony and 

doubling of parts in the wind. 
No. 119. „ [3 18-31 9 1 — 2 Flutes. 

Shihirazade, 2i^ movement [T] — 2 CI., Fag. (sustained note in 

the horn) (cf. Ex. 1). 
The Christmas Night [T] — 3 CI. 
Sadko \T\ — CI., Bass cl., Fag., C-fag. 
No. 120. Sadko [49] — Ob., Cl., Horn, Fag. 

— 2 Cl. (cf. Ex. 289, 290). 




— 82 — 
No. 121. Sadko [ni] — CI., Fag. 

No. 122. 

The Tsar's Bride 




195-196] — 2 CI., Bass cl. 
CI., Fag. 

harmonic parts in motion, Fl. and 
Cl. (cf. Ex. 22. 


— Cl. (low. register), Fag. 
* No. 123. Kashiche'i the Immortal 
*No. 124. Legend of Kitesh 





No. 124. 





No. 125. 

* No. 126. 




* No. 127. The Golden Cockerel 

No. 128. 

Ob., Fag» muted. 

— Fl. Fag. 

— Fl., Ob. (cf. Ex. 197). 

— Eng. horn, Fag., C-fag. (cf. 

Ex. 199). 

— niixed timbre: 2 Ob., Eng. 

horn and 3 Cl. 

— harmonic parts in motion: 

— 3 Fl. (low register) 

and 2 Cl. 

— Fl., Ob., Cl. (cf. Ex. 31). 

— 2 Cl., Bass cl. 

— Eng. horn, 2 Cl. and Bass 

cl.. Fag. 

— Eng. horn, muted, CI., 2 Fag. 
— Cl., Bass cl.. Fag., C-fag. 

Bass cl., Fag.; Fl., Cl.; 

Cl., Bass cl. 
harmonic parts in motion: 
Fl. and Cl. 



Harmony in the brass. 

Here, as in the wood-wind, part writing should be of the close 
order with no empty spaces in the intervals. 

Four-part writing. 

It is evident that the quartet of horns presents every facility for 
four-part harmony, perfectly balanced in tone, without doubling 
the bass in octaves: 


Note. In the diagrams of the present section the actual sounds of horns 
and trumpets are given, as in a piano score, for the sake of simplicity. 

When it is found necessary to double the bass in octaves, the 
too resonant trombone and tuba are seldom used, the duplication 
being effected by the bassoon, as explained further on. The quartet 
of trombones and tuba is not often employed in close four-part 
harmony; the third trombone and. the tuba usually form the bass 
in octaves, and the three upper parts are generally allotted to the 
two remaining trombones reinforced by a trumpet or two horns 
in unison, so as to obtain a perfect balance of tone: 

g 2Corni (ITr-ba) 

Tuba •» 


or ^. Tuba 

I have often adopted the following combination of brass instru- 
ments, and consider it eminently satisfactory: 2 horns and tuba to 
form the bass in octaves, the three other parts given to the trombones: 



3 Tr-bni 

** '-i Uorin 

(beautiful full resonance). 


In the higher registers, four-part harmony, of which the two upper 
parts are given to the trumpets, may be completed by two trom- 
bones or four horns in pairs: 

-ni »3^TI^.b0 


^feTr.bui[^ 3 


4 Uorni i^r 

When 3 trumpets are available the fourth part should be allotted 
to one trombone, or two horns in unison: 


\V\ a Tr.bc 

»l3Tr-bo -H 

1 Tr-bne •»■ 2 Corni 

Enclosure of parts may be used in single chords: 

4 Cor. 

3 Tr.bc 


"TPaiy-bn i-i 



or in progression: 

Three-part writing. 

The best combination is trombones, horns, or trumpets in three's. 
If the instruments are mixed the number of horns should be 


a Tr-b e [ 



2 Cor. 

. ^ rt-. 2 Cor „ 

paXn ib ni y . 


Writing in several parts. 

When the whole group is used' the number of horns should be 


g Tr-be [ - ^ j - 

,] 4 C orT ii 

— 1.3Tr-bni 


» l''--bo C » 

— 4 Corn i 




U] 4 Co m i 

rT| .'^ Tr-bm _a 


Hl '<' »V- W^^ 

**■ 2 CornT 



Tub.i ^ 


Tuba «» 


In seven, six, or five-part harmony certain instruments must 
be omitted: 

1 Tp-bn ti 



4 Co r ni 


\ \] A T p . b e =a ^r-bc "o -a-t^^»fm 

3 Tp-bf 


l^ rf l>-t>m 

«»• Tuba 

«- Tuba 

«■ Tuba 

a Tr-hc- Ji 

— «>1 , ., . 
.»— ^ ITorni 


n 1 i >-biio 

ti ] U Tp.b S^ 


1 ■ ? T i '-hn i 


*^ Tuba 

«■ Tuba 

Discords of the seventh or second are preferably entrusted to 
instruments of different tone colour: 

— 85 — 



3 Tr-bni 

;* rp- b o 


TITf-lio [8 
L -TT 

— 4Corni 





When such chords are written for an orchestra which only 
includes two trumpets, it is impossible for the horns to proceed in 
pairs. In such cases the following arrangement may obtain, the 
horns being marked one degree louder than the other instruments, 
to secure balance of tone: 




J g.]4Lorn=T^ 

2 Tr-bni f— 



"^ Tuba/- 

The same method .should be followed whenever the use of horns 
in pairs fails to produce satisfactory tone. 

When chords of widely-divided harmony are distributed through- 
out several harmonic registers, the register occupied by the horns 
need not be doubled; the arrangement of the chord will re- 
semble that of a chorale written for double or triple choir. For 

Tuba zPJ 


Duplication in the brass. 

Duplication in the brass group is most frequently effected by placing 
a chord for horns side by side with the same chord written tor 
trumpets or trombones. The soft round quality of the horns inten- 
sifies the tone, and moderates the penetrating timbre of the trum- 
pets and trombones: 

— 86 — 


a Tr-b 


^i — T ^TTT 4 Cop. 

a Uior. 

Tu b a 


a T r -b *' 



Similar juxtaposition of trumpets and trombones: 



a Tr-bni 

is not so common, as this unites tiie two most powerful agents 
in the group. 

In handling an orchestra the brass is frequently employed to sus- 
tain notes in two or three octaves; this sphere of activity must not 
be ignored. The tenuto is generally given to two trumpets, or to 
two or four horns, in the octave, (in double octaves). The octave is 
sometimes formed by trumpets and horns acting together: 



2 Corni 

4 Corni 

1 Tr-ba 



The trombone with its ponderous tone rarely takes part in such 
combinations. Sustained notes in double octaves are usually 
apportioned thus: 




The imperfect balance arising from the duplication of the middle 
note is compensated for by the mixture of timbres, which lends 
some unity to the chord. 

Examples of harmony in the brass: 
a) Independent chords: 
Snegourotchka [j^J — 3 Trombones, 2 Horns. 

[140] — 3 Trombones, 2 Horns. Chords in different 
groups alternately (cf. Ex. 244). 
„ |i7i I — Full brass; further on 3Trombones (cf.Ex.97). 

255 1 — 4 Horns (stopped). 

— 87 — 

No. 129. Snegourotchka, before 



— 4 Horns. 

— Full brass. 

*Sadko, before [T] — Full brass (enclosure of parts). 
No. 130. Sadko |i75| — Mixed timbres (juxtaposition) 3 Horns 

+ 3 Trpmpets. 
„ before [aas] — Full brass except Tuba. 

(Full brass). 

No. 131. 

191 — 193 

No. 132. The Christmas Night, before \m\ — Full muted brass. 
„ „ ,,181 — 4 Horns + 3 Trombones 

+ Tuba (cf. Ex. 237). 

Strings and brass alternately (cf.Ex.242). 
7'-lL bar. — 2 Trumpets, 2 Trom- 
bones -(- 4 Horns (juxtaposition). 
— Full brass, thicHly scored (cf. 


* The Tsar's Bride 

* No. 133. Tsar Saltan 


* Servilia 


Table of chords No. II at the end of Vol. II, Ex. 12). 
Various brass instruments. 

— 3 Trumpets, Trombone and Tuba. 

Short chords (juxtaposition). 




— Horns, Trombones (en- 

* Legend of Kitesh 
No. 134. Legend of Kitesh 

* No. 135. The Golden Cockerel 
b) Harmonic basis: 

No. 136. Snegourotchka [t?], 6t!i bar. — 4 Horns. 

„ 231 — 3 Trombones, soft and sweet (cf. 

Ex. 8). 


4 Horns; later 3 Trombones (cf. Ex. 32). 




* Shihirazade, I5i movement, [a], [e] , 
bases of different power and timbre (cf. Ex. 192 
No. 137 


* No. 138. Tsar Saltan 

, [m] — Harmonic 
— Full brass. 

— 4 muted Horns + 3 Trombones 
and Tuba con sard. pp. 
„ „ before [mt] — Full brass // (the 2 Oboes 

and Eng. horn are of no particular importance). 

4 Horns, then Trombones, 2 Horns. 
Trumpets, Trombones. 



* Pan Voyevoda 

•No. 139. Legend of Kitesh 

No. 140. 


1 248 1 — 3 Trombones, 
before 1 362 1 — Full brass. 

Harmony in combined groups. 

A. Combination of wind and brass. 

Wind and brass instruments may be combined by the method 
of placing a chord in one timbre side by side with the same chord 
in another timbre, or by any of the three methods already described: 
overlaying, crossing and enclosure of parts. 

1. In unison (juxtaposition or contrast of tone qualities). 
This class of combination possesses the same features as combi- 
nations in the melodic line (cf. Chap. II). Wood-wind reinforces 
the brass, softens it and reduces its characteristic qualities. Arrange- 
ments such as the following are possible: 

2 Trumpets + 2 Fl.; 2 Trumpets + 2 Ob. 

3 Trumpets + 3 Fl.; 3 Trumpets + 3 Ob. 

2 Fl 

2 Trumpets + 2 CI. 

3 Trumpets -f 3 CI. 




!S C'orni - 


2 Horns + 2 CI.; 

3 Horns + 3 CI.; and: 

as well as: 

2 Horns + 2 Fag.; 

3 Horns + 3 Fag.; 
2 Horns -f 2 Fag. + 2 CI. etc. 

The combination 3 Trombones -|- 3 Fag., or 3 Trombones -{- 3 CI. 
are very rare. 

A chord scored for full brass doubled by the same chords scored 
for full wood-wind (in pairs) produces a magnificent and uniform tone. 

— 2 Horns + 2 CI. and 2 Horns-f 2 Ob. (cf. 




— 4 Horns + 2 CI., 2 Fag. 

— Juxtaposition of full wind 

Ex. 236). 

No. 141. The Tsar's Bride 

No. 142. „ 
and brass. 

Ivan the Terrible, Act II [sol — Juxtaposition and enclosure (cf. 
Table of chords II, Ex. 8). 

No. 143. The Christmas Night [Tas] — 4 Horns -|- Fl., CI., Fag. 

— 89 - 

* No. 144. Sadko, before [79] — Horn, Trumpet -[- doubled wood- 
wind (1). 
No. 145. „ [242] — Full brass + F1., CI. 
Legend of Kitesh, beginning — Horn, Trombones -f CI., Fag. (cf. 
also [5] — Ex. 24^). 

No. 146. Legend of Kitesh |_ioJ — Eng. horn, 2 CI., Fag. legato 

+ 4 Horns non legato. 
— Full brass -|- wind. 


*No. 147. The Golden Cockerel [2^ - Horn + ct "^^^ ^^ 
Stopped or muted notes in trumpets and horns resemble the 

oboe and Eng. horn in quality; the combination of these instruments 

produces a magnificent tone. 


No. 148. Russian Easter Fete, p. 11. — Horn (-t). Trumpets (low 
register) + Ob., CI. 

* The Christmas Night, before [T54] — Full muted brass -|- wind. 
*No. 149. Tsar Saltan [129] — 2 Ob., Eng. horn, + 3 Trumpets 

muted (3 CI. at the bottom). 
*No. 150. „ „ [TaT], 171I1 bar. — Same combination with 

added horns. 

* No. 151. Antar \T\ — Ob., Eng. horn, 2 Fag. + 4 Horns (+). 
A beautiful dark tone is derived from the combination of middle 

notes in stopped horns and deep notes in the clarinet: 


^ .'Jl'oi-.[^g] iJClar. 

If bassoons are substituted for clarinets the effect loses part of 
its character. 

Examples : 

*Kashtchei the /m/wr/a/ [29], 11 lH bar. — 2 Ob., 2 CI. + 4 Horns (+). 

, 6ili bar. — 2 CI., Fag. + 3 Horns (+). 


The Christmas Night, p. 249 — CI., Fag. + 3 Horns (+). 

* Mlada, Act III |_i9j — 3 Horns {+) + 3 Fag. and 3 Horns (+) + 
3 Ob. (cf. Ex. 259). 

(1) In the full score a misprint occurs in the clarinet part; it is corrected 
in the example. (Editor's note.) 

— 90 

2. Overlaying (superposition), crossing, enclosure of parts. 
It has already been stated that the bassoon and horn are the 
two instruments best capable of reconciling the groups of wood- 
wind and brass. Four-part harmony given to two bassoons and 
two horns, especially in soft passages, yields a finely-balanced tone 
recalling the effect of a quartet of horns, but possessing slightly 
greater transparence. In forte passages the horns overwhelm the 
bassoons, and it is wiser to employ four horns alone. In the former 
case crossing of parts is to be recommended for the purposes of 
blend, the concords being given to the horns, the discords to the 

and not: 



^J ^^'^''•- 

Bassoons may also be written inside the horns, but the inverse 
process is not to be recommended: 

2Cor.rqQ.i2 Faff 

The same insetting of parts may be used for sustained trumpet 
notes in octaves. In soft passages, thirds played in the low register 
of the flutes, sometimes combined with clarinets, produce a beauti- 
ful mysterious effect between trumpets in octaves. In a chain of 
consecutive chords it is advisable to entrust the stationary parts 
to the brass, the moving parts to the wood-wind. 

Clarinets, on account of their tone quality should rarely be set 
inside the horns, but, in the Upper register, and in the higher har- 
monic parts, a chord of four horns, (piano), may be completed 
by clarinets as effectively as by oboes or flutes; the bassoon may 
then double the base an octave below: 



4 Corni 



3 Clar. ou 3 Olx 
ott 3 Fli 

Played forte, the horns are more powerful than the wood-wind; 
balance may be established by doubling the upper harmonic parts: 


2 Ob 


a) Superposition. 

* Sadko, Symphonic Tableau [[] , — Fl., Ob., CI., Horn (basis). 

before [u] — 2 Fi., CI., Horns, 
final chord — Fl., CI., Horn. 

* Antar |^2] — Fl., CI., Horns (basis). 

No. 152. Antar [se] — 3 Fl., 4 Horns (basis). 

* Snegourotchka |30o| — Full wind and horns. 

* Sheherazade — Final chords of liL and 4^-^ movements. 

* Russian Easter Fete [jT] — Fl., CI., Horn; later trumpets and 
trombones in juxtaposition (cf. Ex. 248). 

* No. 153. The Christmas Night [2i2] , lOiH bar. — Wind and Horns; 

trumpets and trombones added 



3 FI.+ 3 CI. 
3 Horns 

* Sadko, Opera 1 165 1 — Juxtaposition ana Superposition. 
No. 154. Sadko [ass] — Same distribution. 
No. 155. Servilia \n\ ' "• +„2„0^;. O- 
*No. 156. Legend of Kitesh, before 

157 —3 Flutes, 3 Trombones. 
„ „ „ final chord (cf. Table III of chords, 
Ex. 15). 

*TheGolden Cockerel, before |2i9| - Mixed timbre of wood-wind, 
4 Horns. 

b) Crossing. 

* The Christmas Night, before [si] — Horn., Fag. 

„ [Tot] — Clar., Horn., Fag. 

* Legend of Tsar Saltan, before 

* The Golden Cockerel 



Horn., Fag. 
— 3 Trombones, 2 Fag., C-fag. 
(cf. Ex. 232). 
* No. 157 Antar, before [io] — Wood-wind, Horns, then Trumpets. 

92 — 

c) Enclosure: 

No. 158. Ivan the Terrible, Act I 
horns within bassoons. 

No. 159. Snegourotchka [Tsa] — 


. — Flutes within horns; later 

*Sadko, symphonic tableau 

Fl., 2 CI. 

CI. + Fagr. 
— 4 Horns 
CI. + Fag. 

* Antar before 




— 2 Horns (+) 

— Harmonic basis; oboes within, trumpets 

*Sadko, Opera 
(cf. Ex. 260). 

* No. 160. Sadko, Opera, before [T55] — Flutes within trumpets. 

* The Tsar's Bride, end of Overture — Bassoons within horns 
(cf. Table Jll of chords, Ex. 14). 

*Nr. 161. Tsar Saltan so — Trumpets within wood-wind doubled. 

No. 162. „ „ [59] — Flutes within trumpets; clarinets 
within horns. 

*Nr. 163. Legend of Kitesh [82] — Oboes and clarinets within 

The relationship which has been shown to exist between stopped 
horns and oboe or Eng. horn authorizes the simultaneous use of 
these instruments in one and the same chord, played p or sfp: 


rflii Ob. 


f Uo r oo H^ 

* The Christmas Night [ts] — 3 Horns (+) + Oboe. 

Ob., Eng. horn, Horn (+) (cf. Ex. 240). 
— CI., 2 Fl., + 2 Ob., Eng. horn, 3 Horn (+). 

The Tsar's Bride 
* Legend of Kitesh 



2 Ob., Eng. horn 1 „ 
3 Horns (+) J °' 

*Nr. 164. Legend of Kitesh, before [255] 

*Cf.also Tsar Saltan, before [TIs] — 2FL'^2Vag. C^^- l^^)- 

If trumpets and trombones take part in a chord, flutes, oboes 
and clarinets are better used to form the harmonic part above the 
trumpets. The following should be the arrangement: 

— 93 

*ji20b. + 2 Fl 

8]20b. + 2FI 
— no anifi^ 

^.FI +C1. 

^^iJTr.boC^^/ H 

3 rr- bo rH ^-^^^^ j 

eM 1 

|Mi>.bCc„ ^-■-•■.g^ 

** 4Corni 

*?^ ^— 



— 4 Corni 


- 4 Cor. 




' Tuba 1 

** ' n 

C-faff «* 

3F1. + 3 0b 

fi3 2 Fl 

2 0b.[e, 


2Fl.+ 2 0b. 

I'r-bo c^n^g ^^F 

aob. - fsci.c 

Q Fl. pice. 
««• 2 Fl 





a (Jor- ^ 

oJ ■i 'I'p-bo 



>i Uor. 

4 Cur- 

i t:!? Fa ti-. r° ^ 

3 Tr-bni 


•^■• o ''"' rs gv. 

Tuba L^ frr 

2 Fag. __ = 
L««- Tuba 

•»«■ 2 Fag. 

*Sadko, symphonic tableau [20]. 

* No. 165. 7/ie May Night, Act I [e£| — 3 Trombones, 2 Ob. 

+ 2 CI. + 2 Fag. 
„ „ „ p. 325. — Final chord, C maj. (cf. 

Table I of chords, Ex. 1). 

* No. 166. Snegourotchka |i98|; cf. also [200] and before 


* Se'he'razade, 1- movement [e], 2^ movement P , 3i^ move- 
, 41I1 movement p. 203 (cf. Ex. 195, 19, 210, 77). 



Nr. 167. The Christmas iV/g/z/ [205] ; cf. also [Tel], [2T2], r4'A bar. 
(Ex. 100, 153). 

*Mlada, end of Act 1 (cf. Chord Table 11, Ex. 13). Act II 


No. 168—169. Sadko, Opera, before [249], [302]; cf. also E.\. 120). 

— 94 — 1 

No. 170. Sadko, Opera 1 244 1 — Chord of widely extended range; 

bassoons at the limit of low compass. 
[T42] , [239] ; cf. also [3] (Ex. 86). 

The Tsar's Bride [T79] (cf. Ex. 243). 

Alternation of notes in horns and wood-wind on 



trombone chords (cf. Ex. 32). 

General observations. It is not always possible to secure proper 
balance in scoring for full wood-wind. For instance, in a suc- 
cession of chords where the melodic position is constantly chang- 
ing, distribution is subordinate to correct progression of parts. 
In practice, however, any inequaHty of tone may be counterbalanced 
by the following acoustic phenomenon: in every chord the parts 
in octaves strengthen one another, the harmonic sounds in the 
lowest register coinciding with r.nd supporting those in the highest. 
In spite of this fact it rests entirely with the orchestrator to obtain 
the best possible balance of tone; in difficult cases this may be 
secured by judicious dynamic grading, marking the wood-wind one 
degree louder than the brass. 

B. Combination of strings and wind. 

1. We frequently meet with the combination of strings and wood- 
wind in the light of comparison of one timbre with another, either 
in long sustained notes, or tremolando in the strings. Apart from 
the complete or partial doubling of the string quartet (two methods 
frequently used), the general and most natural arrangement is: 

Ob.(Ci.) + Vnidiv.; ^[^J; + 'Cellos -f Violas div., etc. 

* Sadko, Symphonic lableau before [T], andjT], 9*-l? bar. 

* Sheherazade, l5i movement M 6 Vni soli -[- 2 Ob. (2 Fl.), CI. 

* Antar |T] — String quartet divisi + wood-wind (cf. Ex. 151). 

* No. 171. Antar [sTl — Vni II, Violas div. + Fl., Horn (florid 

accompanifnent in the Clar.). 

* Legeu:' of Kitesh 295 — the same; rhythmic motion in the 

wind, sustained harmony in the strings (cf. Rx. 213). 

— 95 — 

2. Owing to the complete absence of any affinity in tone quality, 
the combination of strings with brass is seldom employed in juxta- 
position, crossing, or enclosure of parts. 

The first method may be used however when the harmony is 
formed by the strings tremolando, and the brass is employed in 
sustaining chords, also when the strings play short disconnected 
chords, sforzando. Another possible exception may be mentioned; 
the splendid effect of horns doubled by divided violas or 'cellos. 


Snegourotchka [242J — Full brass + strings fr^/no/and(?(cf.l5L Table 
of chords, Ex. 6). 

Legend of Kitesfi, before 240 — the same (Horn, Trumpet +). 

*Sadko, Opera, before [34] — Horn + Violas div., Trombones -f- 
'Cellos div. (1). 

C. Combination of the three groups. 

The combination of strings, wood-wind and brass instruments, 
set side by side, produces a full, round and firm tone. 


No. 172. The Tsar's Bride, before [hsJ — Ob., Fag. + Horns 

+ Strmgs. 
„ „ „ final chord (cf. Table I of chords, 

Ex. 5). 
*No. 173. Sadko, end of I2i tableau — short chords. Last chords 
of the 151, 31^ and 711i tableaux (cf. Table I and III, Vol. II, Ex. 9, 
10, 18). 

*No. 174. The Christmas Night [22J — W^ind + Brass csord. -\- 
tremolo strings. 

Legend of Kitesh [mj (cf. Ex. 250). 

Snegourotchka — end of opera, (cf. Table III in Vol. II, Ex. 17) 
and a host of other examples. 

(1) A splendid example of the combination of strings and brass may be 
found in the introduction to the 2jl^ scene of the 411l act of " Khovanstchina" 
by Moussorgsky, orchestrated by Rimsky-Korsakov. (Editor's note.) 

— 96 — 

General Observations. Balance and correct distribution of tone 
is much more important in dealing with long sustained chords or 
those of rhythmic design; in the case of short, disconnected chords 
resonance is a minor consideration, but one which should not be 
entirely neglected. 

I have endeavoured to outline the general principles to be 
followed, but I do not profess to deal with all the countless cases 
which may arise in the course of orchestration. I have given a 
few examples of well-sounding chords; for further information I 
advise the reader to study full scores with care, as this is the 
only method to acquire perfect knowledge of the distribution 
and doubling of various instruments. 

Chapter IV. 


Different ways of orchestrating the same music. 

There are times when the general tone, character and atmo- 
sphere of a passage, or a given moment in an orchestral work point 
to one, and only one particular manner of scoring. The following 
simple example will serve for explanation. Take a short phrase 
where a flourish or fanfare call is given out above a tremolando 
accompaniment, with or without change in harmony. There is no 
doubt that any orchestrator would assign the tremolo to the strings 
and the fanfare to a trumpet, never vice versa. But taking this for 
granted, the composer or orchestrator may still be left in doubt. 
Is the fanfare flourish suitable to the range of a trumpet? Should 
it be written for two or three trumpets in unison, or doubled by 
other instruments? Can any of these methods be employed without 
damaging the musical meaning? These are questions which I shall 
endeavour to answer. 

If the phrase is too low in register for the trumpets it should 
be given to the horns (instruments allied to the trumpet); if the 
phrase is too high it may be entrusted to the oboes and clarinets 
in unison, this combination possessing the closest resemblance 
to the trumpet tone both in character and power. The question 
whether one trumpet or two should be employed must be decided 
by the degree of power to be vested in the given passage. If a 
big sonorous effect is required the instruments may be doubled, 
tripled, or even multiplied by four; in the opposite case one solo 
brass instrument, or two of the wood-wind will suffice (1 Ob. -f 1 CI.). 
The question whether the tremolo in the strings should be supported 

— 98 — 

by sustained harmony in tiie wood-wind depends upon the purpose 
in view. A composer realises his intentions beforehand, others 
who orchestrate his music can only proceed by conjecture. Should 
the composer desire to establish a strongly-marked difference between 
the harmonic basis and the melodic outline it is better not to 
employ wood-wind harmony, but to obtain proper balance of tone 
by carefully distributing his dynamic marks of expression, pp, p, 
f and //. If, on the contrary, the composer desires a full round 
tone as harmonic basis and less show of brilliance in the harmonic 
parts, the use of harmony in the wood-wind is to be recommended. 
The following may serve as a guide to the scoring of wood-wind 
chords: the harmonic basis should differ from the melody not only 
in fullness and intensity of tone, but also in colour. If the fanfare 
figure is allotted to the brass (trumpets or horns) the harmony should 
be given to the wood-wind; if the phrase is given to the wood-wind 
(oboes and clarinets) the harmony should be entrusted to the horns. 
To solve all these questions successfully a composer must have full 
knowledge of the purpose he has in view, and those who orchestrate 
his work should be permeated with his intentions. Here the question 
arises, what should those intentions be? This is a more difficult 

The aim of a composer is closely allied to the form of his 
work, to the aesthetic meaning of its every moment and phrase 
considered apart, and in relation to the composition as a whole. 
The choice of an orchestral scheme depends on the musical matter, 
the colouring of preceding and subsequent passages. It is im- 
portant to determine whether a given passage is a complement 
to or a contrast with what goes before and comes after, whether 
it forms a climax or merely a step in the general march of musical 
thought. It would be impossible to examine all such possible 
types of relationship, or to consider the role played by each passage 
quoted in the present work. The reader is therefore advised not 
to pay too much attention to the examples given, but to study them 
and their bearing on the context in their proper place in the full 
scores. Nevertheless I shall touch upon a few of these points in 
the course of the following outline. To begin with, young and 
inexperienced composers do not always possess a clear idea of 
what they wish to do. They can improve in this direction by reading 

— 99 — 

good scores and by repeatedly listening to an orchestra, provided 
they concentrate the mind to the fullest possible extent. The search 
after extravagant and daring effects in orchesfration is quite a 
different thing from mere caprice; the will to achieve is not sufficient; 
there are certain things which should not be achieved. 

The simplest musical ideas, melodic phrases in unison and 
octaves, or repeated throughout several octaves, chords, of which 
no single part has any melodic meaning are scored in various 
ways according to register, dynamic effect and the quality of 
expression or tone colour that may be desired. In many cases, 
one idea will be orchestrated in a different way every time it 
recurs. Later on I shall frequently touch upon this more compli- 
cated question. 


* Snegourotchka 58 ; 65 and before [as] — sustained note in unison. 

There are fewer possible ways of scoring more complex musical 
ideas, harmonico-melodic phrases, polyphonic designs etc.; sometimes 
there are but two methods to be followed, for each of the primary 
elements in music, melody, harmony, and counterpoint possesses 
its own special requirements, regulating the choice of instruments 
and tone colour. The most complicated musical ideas sometimes 
admit of only one manner of scoring, with a few hardly noticeable 
variations in detail. To the following example, very simple in 
structure 1 add an alternative method of scoring: 

Example : 

No. 175. Vera Scheloga, before |^ — a) actual orchestration, 
*b) — another method. 

It is obvious that the method b) will produce satisfactory tone. 
But a 31^ and 4ili way of scoring would be less succes'sfui, and a 
continuation of this process would soon lead to the ridiculous. For 
instance if the chords were given to the brass the whole passage 
would sound neavy, and the soprano recitative in the low and 
middle register would be overpowered. If the F sharp in the 



double basses were played arco by 'cellos and basses together it 
would sound clumsy, if it were given to the bassoons a comic 
effect would be produced, and if played by the brass it would 
sound rough and coarse, etc. . . . 

The object of scoring the same musical phrase in different ways 
is to obtain variety either in tone colour or resonance. In each 
case the composer may resort to the inversion of the normal order 
of instruments, duplication of parts, or the two processes in com- 
bination. The first of these is not always feasible. In the preceding 
sections of the book I have tried to explain the characteristics of 
each instrument and the part which each group of instruments 
plays in the orchestra. Moreover many methods of doubling are to 
be avoided; these I have mentioned, while there are also some 
instruments which cannot be combined owing to the great difference 
in their peculiarities. Therefore, as regards the general composition 
of the orchestra, the student should be guided by the general 
principles laid down in the earlier stages of the present work. 

The best means of orchestrating the same musical idea in various 
ways is by the adaptation of the musical matter. This can be 
done by the following operations: a) complete or partial trans- 
ference into other octaves; b) repetition in a different key; c) extension 
of the whole range by the addition of octaves to the upper and 
lower parts; d) alteration of details (the most frequent method); 
e) variation of the general dynamic scheme, e. g. repeating a phrase 
piano, which has already been played forte. 

These operations are always successful in producing variety of 
orchestral colour. 

No. 176, 177. Russian Easter Fete 


and [c], 



The Christmas Nighty ^ 

No. 178—181. The Tsar's Bride, Overture: beginning, |T|,p2~|,[T[. 

(cf. Ex. 289, 290, and 75). 






No. 182—186. Tsar Saltan 
No. 187—189 







, [246], [220]. 

*No. 190—191. Ivan the Terrible, Overture \J] and [T2] 
Spanish Capriccio — compare 1^ and 3'-^ movement. 

— 101 

*No. 192 — 195. Sheherazade, 1- movement — beginning of the 

fl//£gro[A],|T], [m]. 
„ 31^ movement — beginning |T]. [T] . 

*No. 196—198. Legend of Kitesh 
* No. 199-201 , 







(Cf. also Ex. 213, 214. Legend of Kitesh 
*No. 202— 203. The Golden Cockerel 







The process of scoring the same or similar ideas in different 
ways is the source of numerous musical operations, crescendo, dimi- 
nuendo, interchange of tone qualities, variation of tone colour etc., 
and incidentally throws new light upon the fundamental composition 
of the orchestra. 

Full Tutti. 

The word tutti generally means the simultaneous use of all 
instruments, but the word "all" is used relatively, and it must not 
be inferred that every single instrument must necessarily be employed 
to form a tutti. In order to siinpHfy the following illustrations 
I will divide the word into two classes, full tutti and partial tutti^ 
— independently of whether the orchestra is constructed in pairs, 
in three's, or a larger number of instrumentSv I call full tutti the 
combination of all melodic groups, strings, wind, and brass. By 
partial tutti I mean passages in which the brass group only takes 
part, whether two horns or two trumpets participate alone, or 
whether two horns are combined with one or three trombones, 
without tuba, trumpets, or the two remaining horns, etc.: 

r4 Horns, 2 Horns 2 Horns -i 

.... or 2 Trumpets, or etc. . 

"-.... 3 Trombones J 

In both species of tutti full wood-wind may be employed or not, 
according to the register and musical context of the passage. For 
instance, in the extreme high register it may be essential to include 
the piccolo; in the low register flutes will be unnecessary, and yet 
the passage can still be called tutti. The inclusion of kettle-drums, 
harp, and other instruments of little sustaining power, as of the 
percussion in general, does not come under discussion. 

102 — 

The variety of orchestral operations increases with the number 
of instruments forming a tutti, in fact, so great does it become 
that it is impossible to consider all combinations. 1 can only give 
a few examples of full and partial tutti, and leave the reader to 
draw his own conclusions. Some of these examples fall under the 
double heading of full and partial tutti, and the student is reminded 
that the tutti, is used essentially in forte and fortissimo, rarely in 
pianissimo and piano passages. 

Snegourotchka^^ and 

62] — Partial and full Tufli, 


Partial Tutti, without the trumpets (cf. Ex. 8). 
No. 204. Snegourotchka [JFa] — Full Tutti. 

125^6] — Full Tutti and chorus (cf. Ex.8). 



Full Tutti (cf. Ex. 86). 

— Full Tutti with chorus, diffe- 


Sadko |1], [223], 

No. 205—206. Sadko 
rently scored. 

-No. 207—208. The Christmas Night [m\ and [m] — Full Tutti, 
orchestrated in different ways, with and without chorus. 

* The Tsar's Bride, Overture [T| , [2] , [T| — Full and partial Tutti 

(cf. Ex. 179—181). 


Full Tutti. 


Pan Voyevoda 




Full Tutti. 


— (cf. Ex. 32). 

* No. 209. Sheherazade, 3il movement [m]; cf. also 1^1 movement 
[a], [e], [h]; 2si movement [k], [p], [r]; 3i^ movement [g], 

[o] ; 41I1 movement \g\, [p], [w] and farther on to [T| (No. 193, 
194, 19, 66, 77). 

* Spanish Capriccio[B\, 0, 0, 0, 0' [x^ (cf. Ex. 3). 

* Russian Easter Fete [f] , [T| , before [T], [y], up to the end. 
*j!^ Symphony, lH movement [p], | R— T | , [x] ; 2ii^ movement 

[a] , [¥] ; 4'A movement [a] , \~h 

* Sadko, Symphonic tableau 


*Mlada, Act 111 [12] (cf. Ex. 258). 

* For examples of Tutti chords, see special Tables at the end of Vol. II. 

— 103 — 

Tuiii in the wind. 

In many cases the wood-wind and brass groups can form a tutti 
by themselves for periods of varying length. Sometimes this is 
effected by the wood-wind alone, but n.ore frequently with the 
support of horns. At other times the horns are found alone without 
the wood-wind, and, lastly, a tutti may be comprised of instruments 
of each group in varying numbers. The addition of kettle-drums 
and the rest of the percussion is quite common and constitutes what 
the Germans call "Janitscharenmusik", or Turkish infantry music. 
Violoncellos and double basses playing more or less impor- 
tant pizz. notes are often added to wood-wind instruments (tutti), 
likewise the remainder of the strings and the harps; this process 
renders the sustained notes in the wood-wind more distinct. Tutti 
passages in wood-wind and horns do not produce any great amount of 
power in jorte passages, but, on the other hand tutti in the brass 
groups alone may attain an extraordinary volume of tone. In the 
following examples the formation of pedal notes by strings or wood- 
wind in no way alters the general character of the Tutti: 


No. 210— 211. Snegourotclika 149 , I5i (compare) 

Tsar Saltan 14 , 17 , 26 (cf. Ex. 182—184) 

Pan Voyevoda [57], [Tse], [262] . 

No. 212. Ivan the Terrible, Act II [lo]; cf. also Act. Ill [T]. 

* No. 213— 214. Legend of Kitesh [294], [3T2] (compare). 

* No. 2 15. The Golden Cockerel [He]; cf. also |^ and [sT]. 

* Antar [37] (cf. Ex. 65). 

TuUi pizzicato. 

The quartet of strings (pizzicato), reinforced occasionally by 
the harp and piano, may, in certain cases constitute a particular 
kind of tutti, which can only attain any great degree of strength 
by support from the wood-wind. Without this support it is of medium 
power, though still fairly brilliant in quality. 


No. 2 16. Snegourotchka,hefor& 
* No. 217. Russian Easter Fete 


cf. also 


and before 

; cf. also [u] and |T|. 


* Spanish Caphccio[A], [c], before [s], before [p]; cf.also 
(Ex. 56). 
Mlada, Act II [Ts]. 

(cf. Ex. 295). 


' Sadko 


* Legend of Kitesh [Toi]. 

* No. 218. Tlie May Night, Act i, The Mayor's Song 
nation of strings, arco and pizz. 


Tutti in one, two and three parts. 

It often happens that a moderately full orchestral ensemble exe- 
cutes a passage composed of one or two harmonic parts, in unison 
or in octaves. Such melodic phrases call for more or less simple 
orchestration with the usual doubling of parts, or, in ornamental 
writing, admit of contrast in tone colouring, occasionally with the 
addition of sustained notes. 


, [176]. 

Snegourotchka, before \\^_ 
The Tsar's Bride 



(cf. Ex. 63). 


The Golden Cockerel 

* No. 219—221. Legend of Kitesh 
Tutti, with different scoring. 




3 part 

Legend of Kitesh [Tas], |i39| — Tutti in one part 

Soli in the strings. 

Although, in any orchestral piece, numerous instances are to be 
found of melodies and phrases entrusted to a solo wind instrument 
(generally the first of each group, wood-wind or brass), solos for 
stringed instruments, on the other hand, are extremely rare. Whilst 
the 1^ violin and I5i 'cello are fairly frequently used in this manner, 
the solo viola ist seldom found, and a solo on the double bass is 
practically unknown. Phrases demanding particular individuality 

105 — 

of expression are entrusted to solo instrumenta; likewise passages 
that require extraordinary technique, beyond the scope of the 
orchestral rank and file. The comparatively weak tone of the solo 
instrument necessitates light, transparent accompaniment. Difficult 
virtuoso solos should not be written, as they attract too much atten- 
tion to a particular instrument. Solo stringed instruments are also 
used when vigourous expression and technical facility are not 
required, but simply in order to obtain that singular difference in 
colour which exists between a solo stringed instrument and strings 
in unison. Two solo instruments can be coupled together, e. g. 
2 Violins soli, etc. and in very rare cases a quartet of solo strings 
may be employed. 

Examples . 

Violin solo: 

No. 222—223. Snegourotchka 
The May Night, pp. 64—78. 
Mlada, Act I 




; Act III, before 


*A Fairy Tale |w|. 

* Sheherazade, 12i movement 
start of each movement. 

* Spanish Capriccio 

also the passages at the 

* No. 224. Legend of Kitesh 


and the cadence on p. 38. 
- Vn. solo, on harmonic basis 

of strings sul ponticello and wood-wind. 

Snegourotchka 274 ,279—2 Vni soli (cf. Ex. 9) 

Viola solo: 

No. 225. Snegourotchka 



* No. 226. The Golden Cockerel 163 ; cf. also 174 , 177|. 

Violoncello solo. 

Snegourotchka [Tst] (cf. Ex. 102) 
The Christmas Night, before 
Mlada, Act III 



* The Golden Cockerel [Ttt], [Tso] (cf. Ex. 229) 

— 106 — 

Double bass solo. 

• No. 227. Mlada, Act II |To-i^ 
first string is tuned down. 

Solo quartet: 

a special instance where the 

The Christmas Night 
* No. 228. Tsar Saltan 



Vn., Viola, 'Cello, D. bass. 
Vn. I, Vn. II, Viola, 'Cello. 

*The case of a solo stringed instrument doubled by the wood- 
wind in unison must not be forgotten. The object is to attain 
great purity and abundance of tone, without impairing the timbre 
of the solo instrument (especially in the high and low registers), 
or to produce a certain highly-coloured effect. 


* Mlada, Act U 

* The Christmas Night 

* Pan Voyevoda 

— Vn. + Fl.; ActIV 


Viol. + F1. 4- Harp. 



Legend of Kitesh 



* No. 229. The Golden Cockerel 

— 2yni+ Fl. 4- Small CI. (cf. Ex. 153). 
— 2 Vni + 2 Ob.; 2 Violas + 2 CI. 
Bass cl. + C-fag. (cf. Ex. 10). 
Vn. + FI. 

^ — Vn. -f Pice; 'Cello + Bass cl. 

* As shown in Chap. II, 2 Vni soli or Violin solo -f Fl. (Pice.) are 
often sufficient to double a melody in the upper register. 

Examples : 

] — cf. Chap. II, p. 42 and Ex. 24. 

Russian Easter File, p. 32 — 2 Solo violins (in har- 



* No. 230 

* No. 231. Legend of Kitesh [297] — 2 Solo violins -f Pice. 

Limits of orchestral range. 

It is seldom that the entire orchestral conception is centred in 
the upper register of the orchestra (the Sit and 6i!i octaves), still 
more rarely is it focussed wholly in the lowest range (octaves 1 
and — 1) where the proximity of harmonic intervals creates a bad 
effect. In the first case the flutes and piccolo should be used along 
with the upper notes of the violins, soli or divisi; in the second 

— 107 

case the double bassoon and the low notes of the bassoons, bass 
clarinet, horns, trombones and tuba are brought into play. The 
first method gives brilliant colour, the second combination is dark 
and gloomy. The contrary would be fundamentally impossible. 



Pan Voyevoda 
Servilia [m], SiH bar. (cf. Ex. 62) 
No. 232. The Golden Cockerel 
* Snegourotchka, before 


; cf. also [iis] , 






* Legend of Kitesh, before 

* No. 233. The Golden Cockerel [na], \nT\ 
•No. 234. Shiherazade, 2!i^ movement pp. 59—62 

The upper and lower parts of a passage can seldom be widely 
separated without the intermediate octaves being filled in, for this 
is contrary to the first principles of proper distribution of chords. 
Nevertheless the unusual resonance thus produced serves for strange 
and grotesque effects. In the first of the following examples the 
piccolo figure doubled by the harp and the sparkling notes of the 
glockenspiel is set about four octaves apart from the bass, which 
is assigned to a single Double bass and Tuba. But in the 3i^ octave, 
the augmented fourths and diminished fifths in. the two flutes help 
to fill up the intermediate space and lessen the distance between 
the two extreme parts, thus forming some sort of link between 
them. The general effect is fanciful. 


No. 235. Snegourotchka 
* No. 236. 

A Fairy Tale [a]. 




, 5iJi and 611i bars, 
(cf. Ex. 9). 

The Golden Cockerel 179 , 9*li bar. (cf. Ex. 229) 

Transference of passages and phrases. 

A phrase or a figure is often transferred from one instrument to 
another. In order to connect the phrases on each instrument in 

— 108 — 

the best possible way, the last note of each part is made to coincide 

with the first note of the following one. This method is used for 

passages the range of which is too wide to be performed on any 

one instrument, or when it is desired to divide a phrase into two 

different timbres. 

Examples : 

* Snegourotchka |i37| — The melody is transferred from the violins 

to the flute and clarinet (cf. Ex. 28). 

* „ before I9i — Solo violin — Solo 'cello. 

Pan Voyevoda 57 — Trombones — Trumpets; Horn — Ob. -|- CI. 

A similar operation is used in scoring passages covering the 
entire orchestral scale, or a great portion of it. When one instru- 
ment is on the point of completing its allotted part, another instru- 
ment takes up the passage, starting on one or two notes common 
to both parts, and so on. This division must be carried out to 
ensure the balance of the whole passage. 


Snegourotchka 36 , 38 , I3i — Strings. 

The Tsar's Bride 190 — Wood-wind 

Sadko 72 — Strings (cf. Ex. 112). 

[223] — Strings. 

The Christmas Night, before |_i80j — Strings, wind and chorus 
(cf. Ex. 132). 

* No. 237. The Christmas Night, before |_i8£j — Shing figure. 

* Servilia [m] — Strings (cf. Ex. 88). 

[29], Sin bar. — Ob. — Fl.; CI. — Bass cl.. Fag. 
No. 238. The Golden Cockerel, before \V\ — Wood-wind. 

,, [5] — Fag. — Eng. horn (+ 'Cellos 
*- ■ 
Chords of different tone quality used alternately. 

1. The most usual practice is to employ chords on different groups 
of instruments alternately. In dealing with chords in different 
registers care should be taken that the progression of parts, though 
broken in passing from one group to another, remains as regular 

— 109 — 

as if there were no leap from octave to octave; tfiis applies specially 
to chromatic passages in order to avoid false relation. 

Examples : 
No. 239. Ivan the Terrible, Act II 
No. 240— 241. The Tsar's Bride 
* No. 242— 243. „ 




, before 





• Note. The rules regulating pfogression of parts may sometimes be ignored, 
when extreme contrast of timbre between two adjacent chords is intended. 

' SMMrazade, SUi bar from the beginning) (the chromatic progression at 
the 12111 bar is undertaken by the same instruments, the 22^ cl. is therefore 
placed above the first in the opening) — cf. Ex. 109. 

• 77ie Christmas Night, opening (cf. Ex. 106). 

2. Another excellent method consists in transferring the same 
chord or its inversion from one orchestral group to another. This 
operation demands perfect balance in progression of parts as well 
as register. The first group strikes a chord of short value, the 
other group takes possession of it simultaneously in the same 
position and distribution, either in the same octave or in another. 
The dynamic gradations of tone need not necessarity be the same 

in both groups. 

Examples : 

Ivan the Terrible, commencement of the overture (cf. Ex. 85). 

No. 244. Snegourotchka 140 

Amplification and elimination of tone qualities. 

The operation which consists in contrasting the resonance of 
two different groups (* or the different timbres of one and the same 
group), either in sustained notes or chords, transforms a simple 
into a complex timbre, suddenly, or by degrees. It is used in 
establishing a crescendo. While the first group effects the crescendo 
gradually, the second group enters piano or pianissimo, and attains 
its crescendo more rapidly. The whole process is thereby rendered 
more tense as the timbre changes. The converse operation — the 
transition from a complex to a simple timbre, by the suppression 
of one of the groups, belongs essentially to the diminuendo. 

— 110 

Examples : 

No. 245. Snegourotchka [3T3] . 

[ho] (cf. Ex. 244). 
A Fairy Tale [v]. 

Sheherazade, 2^ movement [d] (cf. Ex. 74). 
* „ 41I1 movement p. 221. 

No. 246. Servilia [223]; cf. also [44]. 

The Christmas Night [lesj (cf. Ex. 143). 
No. 247. The Tsar's Bride, before [205 

* No. 248. Russian Easter Fete [p] . 

* No. 249— 250. Legend of Kitesh [£\, [^67] , 

Repetition of phrases, imitation, echo. 

As regards choice of timbre, phrases in imitation are subject to 
the law of register. When a phrase is imitated in the upper register 
it should be given to an instrument of higher range and vice versa. 
If this rule is ignored an unnatural effect will be produced, as when 
the clarinet in its upper range replies to the oboe in the lower 
compass etc. The same rule must be follov/ed in dealing with 
phrases, actually different, but similar in character; repeated phrases 
of different character should be scored in a manner most suitable 
to each. 


The Tsar's Bride [T57], [TeTj 

Legend of Kitesh |4 0-4i 

No. 251. Spanish Capriccio 

In echo phrases, that is to say imitation entailing not only 
decrease in volume of tone but also an effect of distance, the 
second instrument should be weaker than the first, but the two 
should possess some sort of affinity. An echo given to muted 
brass following the same phrase not muted produces this distant 
effect. Muted trumpets are eminently suited to echo a theme in 
the oboes; flutes also may imitate clarinets and oboes successfully. 
A wood-wind instrument cannot be used to echo the strings, or 

— Ill — 

vice versa, on account of the dissimilarity in timbre. Imitation in 
octaves (with a decrease in resonance) creates an effect resembling 
an echo. 


Ivan the Terrible, Act 111 \T\. 

No. 252. Sadko [264 

* Spanish Capriccio E . — This example is not precisely an 

echo but resembles one in character (c. Ex. 44). 

* Sheherazade, 41ii movement before O 

Sforzando-piano and piano^sforzando chords. 

Besides the natural dynamic process of obtaining these marks 
of expression, a process which depends upon the player, they 
may also be produced by artificial means of orchestration. 

a) At the moment when the wood-wind begins a piano chord, 
the strings attack it sforzando, a compound chord for preference, 
either arco or pizz. In the opposite case the sf in the strings 
must occur at the end of the wood-wind chord. The first method 
is also employed for a sf-dim., and the second for a cresc.-sf. 

b) It is not so effective, and therefore less frequent to give the 
notes of sustained value to the strings, and the short chords to 
the wood-wind. In such cases the tenuto chord is played tremo- 
lando on the strings. 


Vera Scheloga, before fas], ffl, W^ bar. 

No. 253. Legend of Kitesh, before |~1 5-16 

Sheherazade, 2"^ movement, |T], 1411^ bar. 

Method of emphasising certain notes and chords. 

In order to stress or emphasise a certain note or chord, besides 
the marks of expression ==— and sj, chords of 2, 3, and 4 notes 
can be inserted into the melodic progression by the instruments 
of the string quartet, each playing a single note; short notes in 
the wood-wind may also be used as well as a chain of three or 

— 112 — 

four grace noles, in the form of a scale, either in strings or wood- 
wind. These unstressed notes (anacrusis), generally written very 
small, form a kind of upward glide, the downward direction being 
less common. As a rule they are connected to the main note by 
a slur. In the strings they should not lead up to chords of three 
or four notes, as this would be awkward for the bow. 


No. 254. The Tsar's Bride 142 — Anacrusis in the strings 

*No. 255. Sheherazade, 2n^ movement [c] — Short pizz. chords. 
„ „ „ [p] — Short wind chords 

(cf. Ex. 19). 

Crescendo and diminuendo. 

Short crescendi and diminuendi are generally produced by na- 
tural dynamic means; when prolonged, they are obtained by this 
method combined with other orchestral devices. After the strings, 
the brass is the group most facile in producing dynamic shades 
of expression, glorifying crescendo chords into the most brilliant 
sforzando climaxes. Clarinets specialise in diminuendo effects and 
are capable of decreasing their tone to a breath (morendo). Pro- 
longed orchestral crescendi are obtained by the gradual addition 
of other instruments in the following order: strings, wood-wind, 
brass. Diminuendo effects are accomplished by the elimination 
of the instruments in the reverse order (brass, wood-wind, strings). 
The scope of this work does not lend itself to the quotation of 
prolonged crescendo and diminuendo passages. The reader is re- 
ferred, therefore, to the full scores: 

* Sheherazade, pp. 5—7, 92—96, 192—200. 

* Antar 


The Christmas Night 



*The Tsar's Bride so-si 

Many examples of shorter crescendi and diminuendi will be 
found in Vol. II. 

— 113 - 

Diverging and converging progressions. 

In the majority of cases, diverging and converging progressions 
simply consist in the gradual ascent of the three upper parts, with 
the bass descending. The distance separating the bass from the 
other parts is trifhng at first, and grows by degrees. On the other 
hand, in converging progressions, the three upper parts, at first so 
far distant from the bass, gradually approach it. Sometimes these 
progressions involve an increase or a decrease in tone. The 
intermediate intervals are filled up by the introduction of fresh 
parts as the distance widens, so that the upper parts become 
doubled or trebled. In converging progressions the tripled and 
doubled parts are simplified, as the duplicating instruments cease 
to play. Moreover, if the harmony allows it, the group in the 
middle region which remains stationary is the group to be retained, 
or else the sustained note which guarantees unity in the operation. 
Below, the reader will find double examples of both descriptions. 
The first pair represents a diverging progression, 1. piano, in which 
the human voice takes part; 2. a purely orchestral crescendo. The 
second depicts two similar diverging progressions, firstly a gradual 
crescendo, secondly dim., during which the strings become more 
and more divided as the wind instruments cease to play. Ex. 258. 
accompanies the apparition of Mlada, Ex. 259, its disappearance. 
The atmosphere and colouring are weird and fanciful. The third 
pair of examples forms instances of converging progressions. In 
the first (Ex. 260) Princess Volkhova relates the wonders of the 
sea. Then in the middle of a powerful orchestral crescendo the 
Sea-King appears (Ex. 261). Both examples include a sustained 
stationary chord of the diminished seventh. The handling of such 
progressions requires the greatest care. 

No. 256—257. The Tsar's Bride [T02] and [Tot]. 
No. 258—259. Mlada, Act III [12] and [To]. 

No. 260—261. Sadko 105 and 


Sadko [72j (cf. Ex. 112). 
before |315 . 

— 114 — 

*The Christmas Night, beginning (cf. Ex. 106). 
*No. 262. Antar, end of 3:^ movement. 

Note. A sustained note between the diverging parts does not 
always allow the empty space to be more complety filled up. 

No. 263. The Golden Cockerel, before [Toe] . 

Tone quality as a harmonic force. 

ilarmonic basis. 

Melodic design comprising notes foreign to the harmony, passing 
or grace notes, embellishments etc., does not permit that a florid 
outline should proceed at the same time with another one, reduced 
to essential and fundamental notes: 

Melodic design. 


Fundamental notes. 





If, in the above example, the upper part is transposed an octave 
lower, the discordant effect produced by the contact of appogia- 
turas and fundamental notes will be diminished; the quicker the 
passage is played the less harsh the effect will be, and vice versa. 
But it would be ill-advised to lay down any hard and fast rule as 
to the permissible length of these notes. There is no doubt that 
the harmonic notes, the thirds of the fundamental one (E) are 
more prominent from their proximity with the notes extraneous 
to the harmony. If the number of parts is increased (for instance, 
if the melodic figure is in thirds, sixths etc.), the question becomes 
still more complicated, since, to the original harmonic scheme, 
chords with different root bases are added, producing false relation. 

Nevertheless, for the solution of such problems, orchestration 
provides an element of the greatest importance: difference of 
timbres. The greater the dissimilarity in timbre between the har- 
monic basis on the one hand and the melodic design on the 
other, the less discordant the notes extraneous to the harmony 

— 115 — 

will sound. The best examjJle of this is to be found between the 
human voice and the orchestra, next comes the difference of 
timbres between the groups of strings, wood-wind, plucked strings 
and percussion instruments. Less important differences occur 
between wood-wind and brass; in thes6 two groups, therefore, the 
harmonic basis generally remains an octave removed from the 
melodic design, and should be of inferior dynamic power. 

Examples of harmonic basis in chords: 

No. 264. Pan Voyevoda, Introduction. 

Legend of Kitesh, Introduction (cf. also Ex. 125 and 140). 

*Mlada, Act 111 


The harmonic basis may be ornamental in character, in which 
case it should move independently of the concurrent melodic design. 

*No. 265— 266. Tsar Saltan [103-10 4 1, [m\ , \m], 


(of. below). 

Chords the most widely opposed in character may be used on 
a simple, stationary harmonic basis, a basis, founded, for example, 
on the chord of ihe tonic or diminished sevenih. 

Examples : 

No. 267. Legend of Kitesh 326-328 — Wood-wind and harps 
on a string basis. 

No. 268-269. Kashtche'i the Immortal [ss], [43]. 

No. 270. Mlada, Act II, before Q?], [is]' 0- 

No. 271. The Golden Cockerel [T25] — Chords of the diminished 
seventh, on arpeggio basis (augmented fifth). 

The effect of alternating harmony produced between two me- 
lodic figures, e. g. one transmitting a note, held in abeyance, to 
the other, or the simultaneous progression of a figure in augmen- 
tation and diminution etc. becomes comprehensible and pleasant 
to the ear when the fundamental si^ i iied harmony is different. 







- 116 — 


(cf. Ex. 34 and 231). 


Legend of Kitesh 

No. 272—274. Tsar Saltan [m], 1 162-165 1 (cf. also 

* Russian Easter Fetey before pv] . 

The whole question as to what is allowed and what forbidden 
in the employment of notes extraneous to the harmony is one of 
the most difficuU in the whole range of composition; the per- 
missible length of such notes is in no way established. In ab- 
sence of artistic feeling, the composer who relies entirely on the 
difference between two timbres will often find himself using the 
most painful discords. Innovations in this direction in the latest 
post-Wagnerian music are often very questionable; they depress 
the ear and deaden the musical senses, leading to the unnatural 
conclusion that what is good, taken separately, must necessarily 
be good in combination. 

Artificial effects. 

I apply this name to some orchestral operations which are based 
on certain defects of hearing and faculty of perception. Having 
no wish to specify those that already exist or to foretell those which 
may yet be invented, I will mention, in passing, a few which have 
been used by me in my own works. To this class belong 
glissando scales or arpeggios in the harp, the notes of which do 
not correspond with those played simultaneously by other instru- 
ments, but which are used from the fact that long glissandi are 
more resonant and brilliant than short ones. 



Examples : 
(cf. Ex. 95). 

No. 275. Pan Voyevoda 

* Shihirazade, 3i^ movement 

* Russian Easter Fete 



, 51lLbar (cf. Ex. 248). 

(cf. Ex. 248). 

Enharmonic glissando in the strings should also be mentioned. 

No. 276. The Christmas Night [Tso], 131Iibar — 'Cellos glissando 

— 117 — 

Use of percussion instruments for rhythrii 
and colour. 

Whenever some portion of the orchestra executes a rhythmic 
figure, percussion instruments should always be employed concurrently. 
An insignificant and playful rhythm is suitable to the triangle, tambourine, 
castanets and side drum, a vigourous and straightforward rhythm 
may be given to the bass drum, cymbals and gong. The strokes 
on these instruments should almost invariably correspond to the 
strong beats of the bar, highly-accented syncopated notes or disconnec- 
ted sforzandi. The triangle, side drum and tambourine are capable of 
various rhythmic figures. Sometimes the percussion is used sepa- 
rately, independently of any other group of instruments. 

The brass and wood-wind are the two groups which combine the 
most satisfactorily with percussion from the standpoint of colour. 
The triangle, side drum, and tambourine go best with harmony in 
the upper register; cymbals, bass drum and gong with harmony in the 
lower. The following are the combinations most generally employed: 
tremolo on the triangle and tambourine with trills in wood-wind and 
violins; tremolo on the side drum, or cymbals struck with drum 
sticks, and sustained chords on trumpets and horns; tremolo on the 
bass drum or the gong with chords on trombones or low sustained 
notes on 'cellos and double basses. It must not be forgotten that 
the bass drum, cymbals, gong and a tremolo on the side drum, 
played fortissimo, is sufficient to overpower any orchestral tutti. 

*The reader will find instances of the use of percussion instruments 
in any full score, and in several examples of the present work. 

* Sheherazade pp. 107 — 119, also many passages in 4'^ movement: 
Antar [40], [43] (cf. Ex. 73, 29). 

* Spanish capriccio [p] (cf. Ex. 64); the cadences to be studied 
in the 4^ movement, where they are accompanied by various per- 
cussion instruments. 

* Russian Easter Fete [k] (cf. Ex. 217). 
" The Tsar's Bride[m\. 

Legend of Kitesh 1 96- 197 — "The Battle of Kerj^metz". 

Pan Voyevoda 7i 72 


Economy in orchestral colour. 

Neither musical feeling nor the ear itself can stand, for long, 
the full resources of the orchestra combined together. The 
favourite group of instruments is the strings, then follow in order 
the wood-wind, brass, kettle-drums, harps, pizzicato effects, and lastly 
the percussion, also, in point of order, triangle, cymbals, big drum, 
side drum, tambourine, gong. Further removed stand the celesta, 
glockenspiel and xylophone, which instruments, though melodic, 
are too characteristic in timbre to be employed over frequently. 
The same may be said of the piano and castanets. A quantity of 
national instruments not included in the present work may be 
incorporated into the orchestra; such are the guitar, the domra, 
zither, mandoline, the oriental tambourine, small tambourine etc. 
These instruments are employed from time to time for descriptive- 
aesthetic purposes. 

These instruments are most frequently used in the above-named 
order. A group of instruments which has been silent for some 
time gains fresh interest upon its reappearance. The trombones, 
trumpets and tuba are occasionally tacet for long periods, the 
percussion is seldom employed, and practically never all together, 
but in single instruments or in two's and three's. In national 
dances or music in ballad style, percussion instruments may be 
used more freely. 

After a long rest the re-entry of the horns, trombones and tuba 
should coincide with some characteristic intensity of tone, either 
pp or //; piano and forte re-entries are less successful, while re- 
introducing these instruments mezzo-forte or mezzo-piano produces 
a colourless and common-place effect. This remark is capable 
of wider application. For the same reasons it is not good to 
commence or finish any piece of music either mf or mp. The 
scope of the musical examples in this work does not permit of 
illustrating by quotation the use of economy in orchestral colour, 
nor the re-entry of instruments thrown into prominence by prolonged 
rests. The reader must examine these questions in full scores. 



Chapter V. 


Orchestral accompaniment of solo voices. 

General remarks. 

In accompanying the voice orchestral scoring should be light 
enough for the singer to make free use of all the dynamic shades 
of expression without hardness of tone. In overflowing lyrical 
moments, where full voice is required, the singer should be well 
supported by the orchestra. 

Opera singing may be divided into two general classes, lyric 
singing and declamation or recitative. The full, round, legato aria 
affords greater facility for tone production than florid music or 
recitative, and the more movement and rhythmic detail contained 
in the vocal part, the greater freedom and liberty must there be 
given to the voice. In such a case the latter should not be 
doubled by the orchestra, neither should rhythmical figures be written 
for any instrument corresponding with those in the vocal part. In 
accompanying the voice the composer should bear these points in 
mind before turning his attention to the choice of orchestral colour. 
A confused, heavy accompaniment will overpower the singer; an 
accompaniment which is too simple in character will lack interest, 
and one which is too weak will not sustain the voice sufficiently. 

In modern opera it is rare that orchestral writing is confined 
to accompaniment pure and simple. It frequently happens that the 
principal musical idea, often complex in character, is contained 
in the orchestra. Th? voice may then be said to form the accom- 
paniment, exchanging musical for literary interest. It becomes 

— 120 — 

subordinate to the orchestra, as though it were an extra part^ 
subsequently added as an after-thought. But it is evident that great 
care must be taken with orchestral writing in such cases. The 
scoring must not be so heavy or complicated as to drown the 
voice and prevent the words from being heard, thereby breaking 
the thread of the text, and leaving the musical imagery unexplained, 
Certain moments may require great volume of orchestral tone, so 
great that a voice of even phenomenal power is incapable of 
being heard. Even if the singer is audible, such unequal struggles 
between voice and orchestra are most inartistic, and the composer 
should reserve his orchestral outbursts for the intervals during 
which the voice is silent, distributing the singer's phrases and 
pauses in a free and natural manner, according to the sense of 
the words. If a prolonged forte passage occurs in the orchestra 
it may be used concurrently with action on the stage. All artificial 
reduction of tone contrary to the true feeling of a passage, the sole 
object being to allow the voice to come through, should be strictly 
avoided, as it deprives orchestral writing of its distinctive brilliance. 
It must also be remembered that too great a disparity in volume 
of tone between purely orchestral passages and those which 
accompany the voice create an inartistic comparison. Therefore, 
when the orchestra is strengthened by the use of wood-wind in 
three's or four's, and brass in large numbers, the division of tone 
and colour must be manipulated skillfully and with the greatest care. 
In previous sections I have frequently stated that the structure 
of the orchestra is closely related to the music itself. The scoring 
of a vocal work proves this relationship in a striking mnaner, and, 
indeed, it may be stipulated that only that which is well written 
can be well orchestrated. 

Transparence of accompaniment. Harmony. 

The group of strings is the most transparent medium and the 
one least likely to overpower the voice. Then come the wood- 
wind and the brass, the latter in the following order: horns, trom- 
bones, trumpets. A combination of strings, pizz., and the harp 
forms a setting eminently favourable for the voice. As a general 
rule a singer is more easily overpowered by long sustained notes 
than by short detached ones. Strings doubled in the wood-wmd 

— 121 — 

and brass, and brass doubled by wood-wind are combinations 
liable to drown the singer. This may be done even more easily 
by tremolando in the kettle-drums and other percussion instruments, 
which, even by themselves are capable of overpowering any other 
orchestral group of instruments. Doubling of wood-wind and 
horns, and the use of two clarinets, two oboes or two horns in 
unison to form one harmonic part is likewise to be avoided, 
as such combinations will have a similar effect on the voice. The 
frequent use of long sustained notes in the double basses is another 
course unfavourable to the singer; these notes in combination 
with the human voice produce a peculiar throbbing effect. 

Juxtaposition of strings and wood-wind which overweights legato 
or declamatory singing may nevertheless be employed if one of 
the groups forms the harmony in sustained notes and the other 
executes a melodic design,, when, for instance the sustaining 
instruments are clarinet, and bassoon, or bassoon and horn, and the 
melodic design is entrusted to violins or violas — or in the opposite 
case, when the harmony is given to violas and 'cellos divisi, and 
the harmonic figure to the clarinets. 

Sustained harmony in the register of the second octave to the 
middle of the third does not overpower women's voices, as these 
develop outside this range; neither is it too heavy for men's 
voices, which although opening out within the range itself sound 
an octave higher, as in the case of the tenor voice. As a rule 
women's voices suffer more than men's when they come in contact 
with harmony in a register similar to their own. Taken separately, 
and used in moderation, each group of orchestral instruments may 
be considered favourable to each type of voice. But the combination 
of two or three groups cannot be so considered unless they each 
play an independent part and are not united together at full strength. 
Incessant four-part harmony is to be deprecated. Satisfactory results 
will be obtained when the number of harmonic parts is gradually 
decreased, with some of them sustaining pedal, notes, and when 
the harmony, interspersed with necessary pauses is confined to 
the limits of one octave, distributed over several octaves, or dupli- 
cated in the higher register. 

These manipulations allow the composer to come to the singer's 
aid; in voice-modulations, when the singer passes from the can- 

— 122 

tabile to the declamatory style, the composer may reduce or 
eliminate some harmony which is found to be too heavy as the 
vocal tone diminishes, and conversely, support the voice by a 
fuller orchestral tone in broad phrases and climaxes. 

Ornamental writing and polyphonic accompaniment should never 
be too intricate in character, entailing the use of an unnecessary 
number of instruments. Some complicated figures are better partially 
entrusted to pizz. strings and harp, as this combination has little 
chance of overpowering the voice. Some examples of accompanying 
an aria are given below. 


The Tsar's Bride, Lykow's supplementary Aria (Act III). 

Griasnov's Aria. 


No. 277. Snegoiirotchka 
* Snegourotchka 




the two Cavatinas of Tsar 

Berendey (cf. extracts, Ex. 102, 225). 

No. 278. Sadko 143 


* Legend of Kitesh [39-41 

* The Golden Cockerel 

The Venetian's Song. 

222-2231 (cf. Ex. 31). 



Florid singing which limits volume of tone requires a light 
accompaniment, simple in outline and colour, involving no dupli- 
cation of instruments. 


- Snegourotchka' s Aria (Prologue), 

No. 279. Snegourotchka 



— Hindoo Song (cf. Ex. 122). 
— Oxana's Aria. 


* The Christmas Night 

* The Golden Cockerel |i3i— 136| — Aria of Queen Shemakha. 

Doubling voices in the orchestra. 

Melodic doubling of voices by orchestral instruments (in unison 
or octaves) is of frequent occurrence, but incessant duplication for 
an extended period of time should be avoided; it is only per- 
missible in isolated phrases. The most natural duplication in 

— 123 — 

unison of womens' voices is performed by violins, violas, clarinets 
and oboes; that of mens' voices by violas, 'cellos, bassoons and 
horns. Doubling in octaves is usually done in the upper register. 
Trombones and trumpets overpower the voice and cannot be used 
for this purpose. Uninterrupted or too frequent duplication should 
be avoided, not only because the operation deprives the singer of 
full freedom of expression, but also because it replaces by a 
mixed timbre the rare characteristic qualities of the human voice. 
Doubling, when limited to a few special phrases supports the 
voice and endows it with beauty and colour. It is only suitable 
ki tempo; to apply it, in unison or octaves to a passage ad. lib. 
is both ineffective and dangerous. 


Snegourotchka 50—52 — Snegourotchka's Arietta (cf. Ex. 41). 

Sadko 1^09— 3ii\ — Volkhova's Cradle-song (cf. Ex. 81). 

Besides the question of doubling the voice for the object of 
colour there are instances when the singer executes only part of 
a phrase, allotted in its entirely to an orchestral instrument. 

Vera Scheloga [so], [aa] (cf. Ex. 49). 

Lyrical climaxes, a plena voce, or dramatic passages for the 
voice situated outside its normal range should be supported melo- 
dically and harmonically by the orchestra, in the register in which 
the voice is placed. The culminating point in such passages 
often coincides with the entry or sudden attack of the trombones 
or other brass instruments, or by a rush of strings. Strengthening 
the accompaniment in this manner will soften the tone of the voice 

Examples : 

No. 280. The Tsar's Bride [206]. 
Servilia [1 26-127 

232 . 

No. 281. Sadko [314 
Vera Scheloga [^Tj. 

— 124 — 

If the culminating point is soft in colour and outline it is better 
left unsupported in the orchestra, but sometimes the wood-wind, 
sustaining such passages with light transparent melody or harmony 
may produce an entrancing effect. 

Snegourotchka [Tss], 

[sis] (cf. Ex. 119). 
No. 282. The Tsar's Bride \2u] . 

It is a common practice to support voices in concerted numbers 
by harmony and duplication; this operation makes for accuracy 
and brilliance when applied to duets, trios, quartets etc. 

Snegourotchka [^92^293] — Duet (cf. Ex. 118). 

Sadko 99-101 — Duet (cf. Ex. 289 and 290). 


No. 283. The Tsar's Bride 




Legend of Kitesh [341] — quartet and sextet (cf. Ex. 305). 

The beautiful effect produced by a solo instrument accompanying 
a cantabile aria cannot be denied. In such cases the instruments 
used are generally the violin, viola, and 'cello, or the flute, oboe, 
Eng. horn, clar., bass clar., bassoon, horn and harp. The accom- 
paniment is often contrapuntal or composed of polyphonic designs. 
The solo instrument either plays alone or as the leading melodic 
voice in the ensemble. In combination with the voice, or asso- 
ciated with some action on the stage, a solo instrument is a 
powerful expedient for musical characterisation. Instances of this 
description are numerous. 

Examples : 

Snegourotchka [50j — Soprano and oboe (cf. Ex. 41). 
„ ~97J — Contralto and Eng. horn. 

"243] , [245] — Baritone and bass clar. (cf. Ex. 47— 48)- 


284. The Tsar's Bride [Tos] — Soprano, 'cello and oboe. 

The Golden Cockerel 163 — Soprano and viola (cf. Ex. 226). 

— 125 — 

It is comparetively rare for percussion instruments to take part 
in accompanying the voice. The triangle is occasionally used, the 
cymbals less frequently. An accompaniment may be formed by a 
figure or a tremolo on the kettle-drums. 


Snegourolchka [97], [224), [^ (Lell's m and 3il songs). 
Tsar Saltan, before [?]. 




*No 285. The Golden Cockerel \iS5j; cf. also 

The following are examples of powerful and expressive orches- 
tral passages, the voice tacet: 

No. 286. The Tsar's Bride fill. 
* Legend of Kitesh 



*Servilia [iao]. 

Recitative and declamation. 

The accompaniment of recitative and melodic declamatory phrases 
should be light enough to allow the voice to come through without 
strain, and the words to be heard distinctly. The most convenient 
method is to employ sustained chords and tremolo on the strings 
or wood-wind, giving free latitude to the voice from a rhythmic 
point of view (a piacere). 

Another excellent plan is to write short chords in the strings 
combined with wood-wind in different ways. Sustained chords 
and those entailing change of position should occur preferably 
when the voice is silent, thus permitting both conductor and or- 
chestra to keep a closer watch over the singer's irregularities of 
rhythm in a piacere recitatives. If the accompaniment is more 
complex in character, melodic, polyphonic or ornamental in design, 
the recitative must be sung in tempo. Any phrase which it is 
necessary to emphasise in accordance with the sense of the words 
assumes a more cantabile character, and must be re-inforced by the 
orchestra. Opera, today, besides demanding much greater care 
in the treatment of the text than in the past, abounds in constant 
transition from declamation to cantabile, or in the fusion of the 
two. The orchestra offers more variety of texture and must be 

— 126 — 

handled with greater regard to its relationship to the words, and 
the action on the stage. This tlass of orchestration can only be 
studied from lengthy examples. I refer the reader to operatic full 
scores and content myself with giving one or short instances: 



No. 287. Snegourotchka 
No. 288. The Tsar's Bride 


The following double examples, similar from a musical point 
a vieW; show different methods of handling an orchestra from the 
standpoint of accompaniment to the voice, and the tutti form. 

No. 289—29 1 . Sadko |99— ioi| and 1 305-307 1 (compare also Ex. 75). 

Vera Scheloga |3-7| and 


Care should be taken not to score too heavily when accom- 
panying singers in the wings. 


*No. 292. Sadko 




* Legend of Kitesh 286-289 , 304 305 . 

Orchestral accompaniment of the chorus. 

The chorus, possessing much greater unity and power than the 
solo voice, does not demand such careful handling in the accom- 
paniment. On the contrary, too great a refinement of orchestral 
treatment will prove harmful to the resonance of the chorus. As 
a general rule orchestration of choral works follows the rules laid 
down for purely instrumental scoring. It is obvious that dynamic 
marks of expression must correspond in both bodies, but doubling 
one orchestral group with another and coupling instruments of 
the same kind in unison (2 Ob., 2 CI., 4 Horns, 3 Trombones etc.) 
are both possible operations, if performed according to the re- 
quirements of the musical context. Doubling choral parts by in- 
struments is generally a good plan. In cantabile passages such 

— 127 — 

duplication may be melodic in character, and the design more 
ornamental in the orchestra than in the chorus. 

Ivan the Terrible, Act II |3-6| ; Act III 1 66-69 

The May Night, Act I [x^y]; Act III [ I-Ee 

Ddd— Ft! 

Snegourotchka [6i-73j, 1 147-153 
Mlada, Act II 


22-3T], [45-63 1 ; Act IV 


The Christmas Night 1 59-61 

SadkO 1 37-39 I, 1 50-53 I, [79—86 









The Tsar's Bride 
Tsar Saltan 









Legend of Kitesh 167 


The Golden Cockerel 



The reader will find instances of choral accompaniment in 
many examples relating to other sections of the work. 

In the case of solitary exclamations or phrases in recitative, 
melodic doubling is not always suitable. It is better to support 
the voice simply by harmonic duplication. 

The repetition of notes — required by declamation — forming no 
fundamental part of the rhythmical structure of a phrase or chord 
should not be reproduced in the orchestra; the melodic or har- 
monic basis alone should be doubled. Sometimes the rhythmical 
structure of a choral phrase is simplified in comparison with its 
orchestral duplication. 

Examples : 

No. 293. The Tsar's Bride [96], 

No. 294. Ivan the Terrible, Act I, before [ts]. 

Choral passages, the musical context of which is complete in 
itself, forming a chorus a capella often remains undoubled by the 
orchestra, accompanied solely by sustained notes or an indepen- 
dent polyphonic figure. 

— 128 — 

No. 295. Sadko [219]. 
* Tsar Saltan 


* Legend of Kttesh 167 


(cf. Ex. 116). 

The Golden Cockerel 


Heavier scoring is required for a mixed chorus; for a male 
voice chorus the orchestration should be lighter; still more so for 
women's voices alone. In scoring a certain passage the composer 
should not lose sight of the number of choristers he is employing, 
for scenic conditions may necessitate a reduction of that figure. 
The approximate number should be marked in the full score as 
a basis upon which to work. 

No. 296. 
* Sadko 

Ivan the Terrible, Act II 





* Legend of Kitesh [ET] (cf. Ex. 198). 

Note, It must also be remembered that a ff passage on an enlarged 
orchestra, comprising wood-wind in fours, and numerous brass (sometimes 
in three's), is capable of overpowering a large mixed chorus. 

A chorus in the wings requires as light an accompaniment as 
that employed for a solo singer on the stage. 

Examples . 


* Ivan the Terrible, Act I 

* The May Night, Act I, before 

* No. 297. Sadko [T02]. 


Act III 


; Act III 

Bbb— Ccc 

* Legend of Kitesh [54-56 1 (cf. Ex. 196 and 197). 

Solo voice with chorus. 

When an aria or recitative is coupled with the chorus great 
care must be taken in the choral writing. A woman's solo voice 
stands out well against a male voice chorus, likewise a solo male 
voice against a women's chorus, for in both cases, the (imbre of 
the solo voice differs from the rest But the combination of solo 

— 129 — 

voice and chorus, of the same timbre, or mixed chorus, creates 
a certain amount of difficulty. In such cases the soloist should 
sing in a higher register than the chorus, the former a plena voce, 
the latter piano. The soloist should stand as near to the footlights 
as possible; the chorus up-stage. The orchestration should be 
adapted to the soloist, not (o the chorus. 

Examples : 
No. 298. Snegourotchka " 


Ivan the Terrible. Act II [st] (cf. Ex. 296). 

When the chorus sings in the wings the soloist is always heard 


Examples : 

Ivan the Terrible, Act I 
* The May Night, Act III 
*Sadko [T02] , 




Instruments on the stage and in the wings. 

The use of instruments on the stage or in the wings dates from 
distant times (Mozart, Don Giovanni, string orchestra in Act I, 
finale). In the middle of last century orchestras of brass instruments, 
or brass and wood-wind combined, made their appearance on the 
stage (Glinka, Meyerbeer, Gounod and others). More modern 
composers have abandoned this clumsy practice, not only unfor- 
tunate from the spectators' point of view, but also detrimental to 
the mediaeval or legendary setting of the majority of operas. Only 
those stage instruments are now used which suit the scene and 
surroundings in which the opera is laid. As regards instruments 
in the wings, invisible to the audience, the question is simple. 
Nevertheless, for the musician of today the choice of these instru- 
ments must be regulated by aesthetic considerations of greater 
importance than those governing the selection of a military band. 
The instruments are played in the wings, those visible on the stage 
are only for ornament. Sometimes stage-instruments may be replicas 
of those common to the period which the opera represents, (the 

sacred horns in Mlada, for example). The orchestral accompaniment 


— 130 — 

must vary in power according to the characteristics of the instru- 
ments played in the wings. It is impossible to illustrate the use 
of all the instruments mentioned below, and to outline suitable 
accompaniments. I can only give a few examples and refer the 
reader once again to the passages in the full scores. 

a) Trumpets: 



* Legend of Kitesh 
*Tsar Saltan 


55 . 



and further on. 

b) Horns, in the form of hunting horns: 
Pan Voyevoda 


c) Trombones, leaving the orchestra to go on the stage; 

Pan Voyevoda |i9i| . 

d) Cornets: 

Ivan the Terrible, Act III [T], [T]. 

e) Sacred horns (natural brass instruments in various keys): 
Mlada, Act II, pp. 179 onwards. 

f) Small clarinets and piccolos: 

No. 299— 300. Mlada, Act III 


g) Pipes of Pan: instruments, specially made, with many holes 
which are passed over the lips. These particular pipes pro- 
duce a special enharmonic scale {B flat, C, D flat, E flat, E, F 
sharp, G, A), which has the effect of a glissando: 
Mlada, Act III \m\, [43] (cf. Ex. 300). 

h) Harp, reproducing the effect of an aeolian harp: 

Kashtchei the Immortal [32] and further on (cf. Ex. 268, 269). 

i) Lyres. Instruments specially made and tuned so as to be able 
to perform a glissando chord of the diminished seventh: 
Mlada, Act III [39], 


(cf. Ex. 300). 

k) Pianoforte, grand or upright: 
Mozart and Salieri 


1) Gong, imitathig a church bell: 

Ivan the Terrible, Act I 67 and farther on. 

— 131 — 
m) Bass Drum (without cymbals) to imitate the sound of camion: 

Tsar Saltan 


and later. 

n) Small kettle-drum, in D flat (3iil octave): 
Mlada, Act III [41] and later (cf. Ex. 60). 

0) Bells in various keys: 


Sadko [T28] and 
No. 301. Legend of Kitesh [78?] and further on. See also [241], 
and later. 


* Tsar Saltan [T39] and further on. 

p) Organ: 

No. 302. Sadko [^ 99-30o] . 

Wood-w^ind and strings are comparitively seldom used on the 
stage or in the wings. In Russian opera the strings are employed 
in this way by Rubinstein {GoriouchaJ^ and in a splendidly cha- 
racteristic manner by Serov (Hostile Power) : in the latter opera 
the E flat clarinet is used to imitate the fife in the Carnival 
procession. (1) 

(1) Mention should be made of the happy use of a small orchestra in the 
wings (2 pice, 2 cl., 2 horns, 1 tro mbone, tambourine, 4 Vni, 2 violas, 1 D-bass) 
in The May Night, Act II, Sc. I. IjVl-Pj. (Editor's note.) 

Chapter VI (Supplementary). 


Technical Terms. 

Among all the confused terms employed in singing to denote 
the compass, register and character of the human voice, there are 
four which may be said to represent elemental types: soprano, 
alto or contralto, tenor and bass. These names are used to denote 
the composition of the chorus with sub-divisions of firsts and 
secondSj to determine how the parts must be divided. (Sopr. I, 
Sopr. II etc.) While the range of an instrument is exactly governed 
by its construction, the ^compass of the voice, on the other hand, 
depends on the individuality of the singer. It is therefore im- 
possible to define the exact limits of each of these vocal types. 
When it is a question of dividing choristers into I2I and 2^ parts, 
those with the higher voices are classed among the firsts and 
vice versa. 

Besides the principal terms mentioned above, the names mezzo- 
soprano (between sop. and alto), and baritone (between tenor and 
bass) are also employed. 

Note. In the chorus mezzo-sopranos are classed with 2^ sopranos or 
lii altos, baritones with 211^ tenors or first basses, according to quality and 
timbre of voice. 

Apart from these denominations which represent the six prin- 
cipal solo voices, a quantity of others are in use to denote either 
compass, timbre or technique, such as hght soprano, soprano 
^iusto, lyric soprano, dramatic soprano, light tenor, tenorino-altino, 
bary ton-martin, lyric tenor, dramatic tenor, basso cantante ("singing 
bass"), basso profondo (deep bass) etc. To this lengthy list must 

- 133 — 

be added the term mezzo- car attere, of intermediate character 
(between lyric and dramatic soprano, for example). 

If we try to discover the real meaning of these designations it 
soon becomes apparent that they are derived from widely different 
sources — for instance, "light soprano" implies agility and mobility 
in the voice; "dramatic tenor", the power to express strong dra- 
matic feeling; basso profondo signifies great resonance in the 
deep register. 

Minute examination of all the methods of attack and emission 
of sound lies within the province of the singing master and to 
enumerate them here would only perplex the student. The same 
applies to the position and exact limits of register (chest voice, 
middle and head voice in women; chest voice, mixed voice and 
falsetto in men). The work of a teacher of singing consists in 
equalising the voice throughout its whole compass, so that the 
transition from one register to another, on all the vowels, may be 
accomplished imperceptibly. Some voices are naturally even and 
flexible. The professor of singing must correct faults in breathing, 
determine the range of the voice and place it, equalise its tone, 
increase its flexibility, instruct as to the pronunciation of vowels, 
modulation from one grade of expression to another, etc. A com- 
poser should be able to rely upon flexible and equal voices 
without having to trouble himself as to the abilities or defects of 
individual singers. In these days a part is seldom written for a 
particular artist, and composers and librettists do not find it ne- 
cessary to entrust a certain role to fioriture singers, another to 
heavy dramatic voices. Poetic and artistic considerations demand 
greater variety of resource in the study of opera or vocal music 
in general. 


Range and register. 

I advise the composer to be guided by Table F. which gives 
the approximate range of the six principal solo voices. A bracket 
under the notes defines the normal octave, the register in which 
the voice is generally used. Within these limits the composer 
may write freely without fear of hardening or tiring the voice. 

— 134 — 

The normal octave applies aJso to declamatory singing and reci- 
tative; the notes above it are exceptional and should be used for 
the culminating points of a passage or for climaxes, the notes 
below, for the fall or decline of a melody. Employing voices in 
unusual registers for long periods of time will weary both singer 
and listener, but these registers may occasionally be used for 
brief intervals so as not to confine the voice too strictly to one 
octave. A few examples are added to illustrate melody in different 
types of voices. 

The Tsar's Bride 1 1 02- 109 1 (for extracts cf. Ex. 256, 280, 284) — 

Marfa's Aria (Soprano). 
I26— 18 — Griaznov's Aria (Baritone). 

Snegomotchka — The 3 songs of Lell. (Contralto). 

Sadko [46^49] (cf. extract, Ex. 120) — Sadko's Aria (Tenor). 

[T 29-131I — Lioubava's Aria (Mezzo-sopr.). 

[1 91—19 3] (cf. extract, Ex. 131) — Bass Aria. 


A good vocal melody should contain notes of at least three 
different values, minims, crotchets and quavers (or crotchets, 
quavers and semiquavers etc.). Monotony in rhythmic construction 
is unsuited. to vocal melody; it is applicable to instrumental music, 
but only in certain cases. Cantabile- melody requires a fair 
number of long notes, and a change of syllable in a word should 
occur at a moment when the voice quits a long sustained note. 
Short, single notes, changing wHh every syllable produce a har- 
monious effect. Owing to the requirements of diction, extended 
melodic figures sung legato on one syllable must be used with 
care on the part of the composer; to perform these the singer 
must possess greater command ov^r flexibility and technique. 
The possibility of taking breath in the right place is one of the 
conditions essential to all vocal writing. Breath cannot be taken 
in the middle of a word, sometimes not even during the course 
of a sentence or phrase in the text; hence the voice part must 
be suitably interspersed with rests. 

— 135 — 



Table F. Voices. 
Chorus : 






— 136 — 

Note. It must be remembered that there are some words upon which the 
voice may not dwell, or sing more than one or two notes. These words may 
be nouns, pronouns, numerals, prepositions, conjunctions and other parts of 
speech. It would be impossible and ridiculous, for instance, to write a 
sustained note on such words as "who", "he" etc. The voice may dwell on 
certain words which, so to speak, possess some poetical colour (1). 

No. 303. Sadko [iae] — Sadko's Aria (Tenor). 

" r^09-3ii] (8ee extract, Ex. 81). Volkhova's Cradle 
Song (Soprano). 
Snegourotchka [V] — Fairy Spring's Aria (Mezzo-sopr.). 

(see extracts, Ex. 102 and 225) 



— the two Cavatinas of Tsar Berendey (Tenor). 
[247] — Miskir's Aria (Baritone). 


As regards vocalisation on one syllable, on long sustained notes 
and in the high register, the choice of vowels is a matter of some 
importance. The difference in the position of the mouth and lips 
in forming the open vowel a and the closed vowel ou is apparent 
to everyone. The series of vowels from the point of view of open 
sounds is: a, i, o, e, u. In women's voices the easiest vowel on 
high notes is a, for men it is o. The vowel i softens the pene- 
trating quality of the top notes of a bass voice, and the vowel a 
adds to the extension of range in the very lowest compass. Lengthy 
florid passages are often written on the interjection ah, or simply 

(1) Here the author approaches a question so well known to the Russians 
that it does not require any further elucidation for their guidance. But a whole 
book would have to be written to form a compendium of practical rules 
on this subject, and to point out the errors which nearly all French composers 
openly commit — even those who are famous for their sense of diction and literary 
style. We can only conclude that the question has come to be considered 
of minor importance in France, perhaps on account of the lack of definite 
stress on the syllables of words, which is characteristic of the French language. 
It is not within the translator's province to discuss the question of French 
versification or to elaborate the excellent maxims laid down by Rimsky-Kor- 
sakov, the first, among many, to touch upon this delicate and important subject. 

(Translator's note.) 

— 137 

on the vowel a. Owing to the restrictions imposed by literary 
and dramatic laws, the composer can only follow the above rules 
to a limited extent. 


Snegourotchka [293], |318-319| (cf. Ex. 119). 
No. 304. Sadko [83] . 


Voices possess the greatest amount of flexibility in their normal 
octave. Women's voices are more supple than men's, but in all 
types, the higher voice is the more agile, sopranos in women, the 
tenor voice in men. Although capable 6f performing florid and 
complicated figures, different varieties of phrasing and the rapid 
change from staccato to legato, the human voice is infinitely less 
flexible than a musical instrument. In passages of any rapidity, 
diatonic scales and arpeggios in thirds come easiest to the voice. 
Intervals bigger than fourths in quick succession and chromatic 
scales are extremely difficult Skips of an octave or more starting 
from a short note should always be avoided. Preparation should 
precede any extremely high note either by leading up to it gradually, 
or by the clear leap of a fourth, fifth or octave; but sometimes 
the voice may attack a high note without any due preparation. 



(cf. extract, Ex. 279) — Snegourotchka's 


Aria (Soprano). 

Lell's first song (Contralto). 




Pan Voyevoda 20—26 

(cf. extract, Ex. 122) — Hindoo song (Tenor). 
— Venetian song (Baritone). 

Maria's cradle song (Sopr). 

Colour and character of voices. 

The colouring of the voice, whether it be brilliant or dull, sombre 
or sonorous depends upon the individual singer, and the composer 
has no need to consider it. The chief question is interpretation 
and may be solved by the judicious choice of artists. From the 

— 138 — 

point of view of flexibility and expression voices may be divided 
into two classes, lyric and dramatic. The latter is more powerful 
and of greater range, the former possesses more suppleness and 
elasticity and is more readily disposed to different shades of ex- 
pression. Granted that the rare combination of the two classes is 
the composer's ideal, he should nevertheless be content to follow 
the main artistic purpose which he has set out the achieve. In 
complicated and important works the composer should bear in 
mind the characteristic^ of the various voices he employs; more- 
over, if he use two voices of the same calibre, e. g. 2 Sopranos 
or 2 Tenors, he should discriminate between the range and register 
of their respective parts, writing for one slightly higher than the 
other. It is no rare occurence to meet with voices of an inter- 
mediate character (mezzo-carattere) combining the qualities of 
each type to a modified extent. To such voices the composer 
may assign roles demanding the characteristics of each class, 
especially secondary roles. At the present day, besides the roles 
suitable to the dramatic and lyric type of voice, it is customary 
to give prominence to those demanding some special qualifications, 
voices of a certain tenderness or power, a specified range or degree 
of flexibility — attributes decided by the artistic object in view. In 
casting secondary and minor roles the composer is advised to 
employ a medium range and less exacting demands on technique. 

Note. After Meyerbeer, who was the first to write for a special type of 
heavy mezzo-soprano and baritone, Richard Wagoner created a type of powerful 
dramatic soprano, of extensive rang^e, combining^ the quality and scope of the 
soprano and mezzo-soprano voices; likewise a similar type of tenor, possessing 
the attributes and compass of the tenor and baritone together. To demand 
that voices shall be equally brilliant and resonant in the high and low register, 
that singers shall be endowed with a super-poweriul breathing apparatus and 
an extraordinary faculty for resistance tO fatigue (Siegfried, Parsifal, Tristan, 
Briinhilda, Kundry, Isolda), is to exact something little short of the miraculous. 
Such voices are to be found, but there are some singers with excellent though 
not phenominal vocal powers, who, by the constant pursuit of Wagnerian parts 
endeavour to increase their range and volume, and only succeed in depriving 
the voice of correct intonation, beauty of tone, and all subtlety of nuances. 
I believe that less exacting demands and greater perception of what is re- 
quired, skilful and judicious use of the high and low registers of the voice, a 
proper understanding of cantabile writing combined with orchestration which 
never overpowers the vocal part will be of greater service to the composer, 
from an artistic point of view, than the more elaborate methods of Richard 

139 — 

Voices in combination. 

Treating solo voices in a polyphonico-harmonic manner is the 
best method of preserving their individual character in ensembles. 
A distribution which is wholly harmonic or entirely polyphonic is 
seldom found. The first plan, largely used in choral writing, 
simplifies the movement of the voices too greatly, eliminating their 
melodic character; the second method is wearisome and somewhat 
disturbing to the ear. 

As a general rule the voices are arranged according to the law 
of normal register. Crossing of parts is rare and should only be 
done with the intention of emphasising the melody in the ascending 
voices above those adjacent in register, e. g. the tenor part above 
contralto, the mezzo-soprano above the soprano, etc. 


The combinations most conducive to the proper movement of parts 
are those of two voices related within an octave 8 [?°P^-, ^^^'^^'•, gat"** 
Movement in tenths, sixths, thirds or octaves (the last very seldom) 
will always produce satisfactory ensemble, and if the parts progress 
polyphonically, it need not happen frequently that they are 
separated by more than a tenth, or that undesirable crossing of 
parts will result. 

Examples : 

Sadko 99-101 — Sopr. and Tenor (cf. Ex. 289, 290). 

Servilla 143 — Sopr. and Tenor. 

Ivan the Terrible, Act I 48—50 — Sopr. and Tenor. 

Kashtchei the Immortal 62—64 . Mezzo-sopr. and Baritone. 


Voices related in fifths and fourths, 5 [I^p^Iq, 4 [j^^^'', 5 [[«"• 

should progress nearer to one another; it is rare for them to move 
in tenths, common in sixths and thirds; they may also proceed in 
unison. The two voices are seldom separated at a greater distance 
than ah octave, and certain cases will require crossing of parts, 
which, however, should only be for periods of short duration. 

— 140 — 

Examples : 
Snegourotchka 263—264 — Soprano and Alto. 

The Christmas Night 
Legend of Kitesh 


Alto and Tenor. 


Tenor and Bass. 

Voices related in thirds; 

^ rSopr. M.-sopr, Ten. Bar. 
"^LM.-sopr. ' C.-alto 'Bass' Bass' 

may move in unison, in thirds and sixths, and admit very largely 
of the crossing of parts. Separation by more than an octave must 
only be momentary, and is generally to be avoided. 

Examples : 
* The Tsar's Bride [T74] — Sopr. and Mezzo-sopr. 

* Tsar Saltan 5—6 — Sopr. and Mezzo-sopr. 

In the case of voices related in twelfths : 12 [l^^s , intervals approach- 
ing one another do not create a good effect, for this transplants the 
deeper voice into the upper register and vice versa. Singing in 
unison is no longer possible, and thirds are to be avoided; the 
use of sixths, tenths and thirteenths is recommended. The voices 
will often be separated by more than a twelfth and crossing of 
parts is out of the question. 

Example : 
* Tsar Saltan 1 254— 255 1 

Relationship in tenths 10 [|^P'- or ^^^^^' is fairly common. The 
explanations given above are also applicable in this case. 

Example : 

Snegourotchka 291-300 (cf. extract, Ex. 118) Sopr. and Bar. 

The use of similar voices in pairs: g^PJ* , !fg[[' entails singing in 
unison and thirds. They should rarely be separated beyond a sixth, 
but crossing of parts is inevitable, as otherwise the resultant volume 
of tone would be too weak. 

— 141 — 

Note. Other possible combinations: ^'^f^^ f TeJf°'"^'» ca" *or no special 



• The May Night, Act I pp. 59—64 — Mezzo-sopr. and Tenor. 



Mezzo-sopr. and Tenor. 

As a general rule, writing for two voices is only successful when 
the progression of parts is clear, when discords are prepared by 
a common note, or are the outcome of conveniently separated 
movement and correctly resolved. Emply intervals of fourths and 
perfect fifths, elevenths and twelfths should be avoided on the strong 
beats of a bar, especially on notes of some value. If, however, 
one of the voices assumes a melodic character, the other forming 
the harmonic accompaniment in declamatory style, it is not ab- 
solutely necessary to avoid the intervals mentioned above. 

Note. It is not within the scope of the present work to consider the writing: 
of vocal parts in closer detail. This question must be left to the professor 
of free counterpoint. It remains to be noted that the human voice accom- 
panied by the orchestra is always heard independently as something apart, 
something: complete in itself. For this reason a composer may never rely 
on the orchestra to fill up an empty space or correct a fault in the handling 
of voices. All the rules of harmony and counterpoint, down to the last detail, 
must be applied to vocal writing, which is never dependent upon orchestral 

Trios, quartets etc 

All that has been said regarding the relationship of voices in 
duet applies with equal force to the combination of three, four, 
five or more voices. An ensemble of several voices is seldom 
purely polyphonic; as a rule, although some parts move polyphoni- 
cally, progression in thirds, sixths, tenths and thirteenths is used 
for the remainder. Declamation for some voices on notes forming 
the harmony is also possible. This variety of simultaneous move- 
ment of vocal parts renders the comprehension of the total effect 
less difficult for the ear, and sanctions the distribution oT distinctive 
and suitable figures or tone colouring to certain voices with other 
figures 'or timbres which may be proceeding at the same time. 
The skilful arrangement of pauses and re-entries facilitates the 
understanding of the whole, and gives desirable prominence to 


Examples : 
Snegourotchka [267] — Trio, Finale to Act III. 

The Tsar's Bride 116— 118 — Quartet in Act II. 

Sextet in Act III (cf. extract, Ex. 283). 


Servilia \ 149-15 2] — Quintet in Act III. 

The movement of solo voices is seldonr purely harmonic in 

character with predominance given to the upper voices homophoni- 

cally treated. The blending of all the parts into an harmonic whole, 

without any distinctive predominant feature in any one part (as in 

a chorale) is employed for songs or ensembles in traditional style, 

prayers, hymns, etc. If this method is adopted for the quartet 

of voices, yg° , it will be noted that widely-spaced part writing 


is the most natural and suitable form (especially in forte passages), 
as the four voices can sing together in their proper registers 
(low, middle and high), while, in close part writing they may find 
themselves at a given moment in registers, which are entirely 
foreign. But both methods should be employed, as, otherwise, 
it would be impossible to guarantee equality in even the shortest 
succession of chords. 

Examples : 

Snegourotchka 178 Hymn of Tsar Berendey's subjects. 

No. 305. Legend of Kitesh 


The second half of the last example is an instance of six-part 
harmonic writing; the upper voice stands out prominently, the rest 
form a kind of accompaniment. 


Range and register. 

The range of choral voices is slightly more limited than that 
of soloists. The exceptional register may be considered as two 
notes above and below the normal octave. The dotted lines extended 
still further indicate the limits upon which a composer may rely 
in very exceptional cases, as every full chorus must contain a few 

— 143 — 

voices of more than average compass, in this respect approaching 
the solo voice in character. In many choruses on& or two bass 
singers may be found who are able to go still lower than the 
limit of the exceptional range (they are called octavists) . (l) 

Note. These uncommonly deep notes must be moderately well sustained and 
can only be used when the whole chorus is sing^in^ quite piano; they are 
hardly applicable except in unaccompanied choruses (a capella). 

The difference in range between the "firsts" and "seconds" in 
each type may be fixed as follows: the normal octave and the 
exceptionally low register should be allotted to the "seconds", the 
same octave and the exceptionally high register to the "firsts". 

The composition of the chorus is approximately as follows: for 
a full chorus, 32 singers to each of the 4 parts sopr., alt., ten. and 
bass; for a chorus of medium size, from 16 to 20, and for a small 
chorus from 8 to 10 singers. The number of women will often 
predominate, and more voices are given to the "firsts" than to the 

On account of stage requirements a chorus may have to be 
divided into two or even three separate parts. This is a great 
disadvantage, especially with a small chorus, as each chorister 
becomes more or less a soloist. 

The methods of writing for operatic chorus are very numerous. 
Besides the primary harmonico-polyphonic arrangement, containing 
the whole musical idea, the voices may be made to enter separately, 
singing or declaiming phrases of varying length; they may progress 
in unison or in octaves; one vocal part may repeat certain notes 
or the whole chorus reiterate certain chords; one melodic part 
may predominate (the upper part for preference), the others form- 
ing an harmonic accompaniment; isolated exclamatory phrases 
may be given to the whole chorus or to certain portions of it, 
and finally, the enUre chorus may be treated in a purely harmonic 
manner in chords, with the essential, melodic design allotted to 
the orchestra. Having outlined the principal methods of handling 
the chorus, I advise the reader to study vocal and orchestral scores 
where he will find many illustrations impossible to deal with here. 

(1) Contrebasses voices as they are called when mentioned in French works 
are peculiar to Russia, in which country they are plentiful. 

(Translator's note.) 

— 144 — 

There exists another most important operation, the division of 
the chorus into different groups. The most natural method is to 
divide it into men's chorus and women's chorus. Less frequent 
combinations are altos, tenors and basses, or sopranos, altos and 
tenors. There remains yet another point to be considered, the sub- 
division of each part into two's and three's. Men's and women's 
choruses, considered as distinct unities may alternate either one 
with the other, or with the principal chorus. For this reason sub- 
division increases the possibilities of choral writing, and, as I have 
already remarked, it is only by the study of choral works that 
the student will acquire mastery over this branch of composition, 
the fundamental principles of which can only by faintly outlined 
in the course of the present work. 


Melody is more limited in the chorus than in the solo voice, 
both as regards range as well as mobility. Choristers' voices are 
less "settled" and not so highly trained as those of soloists. 
Sometimes solo and choral melody are similar in point of range 
and technique, but more often the latter is lacking in freedom and 
variety of rhythm, restricted as it is to the repetition of short phrases, 
while the solo voice demands broader melodic outline and greater 
freedom in construction. In this respect choral melody more closely 
resembles instrumental melody. Pauses for taking breath are not 
so important with chorus singers as with soloists; the former do 
not need to breathe all together and each singer may take a slight 
rest from time to time, thus obviating the necessity for sudden 
complete silences. The question of suitable vowels is likewise of 
secondary importance. 

The change from notes of short value to long, vocalisation on 
syllables and others questions mentioned above are equally applic- 
able to choral melody, but in a minor degree. Not more than 
two or three notes should be written on one syllable except for 
fanciful and whimsical effects. 

No. 306. The Golden Cockerel [262]; see also before [T23]. 

— 145 — 

A. Mixed chorus. 

Chorus in unison. 

The simplest and most natural combination of voices is sopranos 
and altos, or tenors and basses. These combinations produce 
ample and vigourous tone, and the mixed timbres serve to give 
prominence to a melody in the upper or bass parts. In practice 
the other voices are often divided to thicken the harmony. The 
combination of altos and tenors produces a peculiar mixed tone 
quality, somewhat bizarre and seldom used. 

Examples : 



Sadko \m] (cf. Ex. 14). 

Progression in octaves. 

The most beautiful and natural combinations are sopranos and 
tenors 8 [fg^"^', altos and basses 8 [sasses' *^^y produce a tone both 
brilliant and powerful. Progression of sopranos and altos, or tenors 
and basses is seldom practised. Though the latter combinations 
may occur in choruses for women and men alone, they can only 
be used in melodies of restricted length. The difference of re- 
gister in which the voices move does not permit of the same 
balance of tone obtained by voices of a distinctive kind. 

Examples : 

Snegourotchka 60 , 6i — Carnival Procession. 

„ 113 — Wedding Ce'-emony. 

Sadko [^ — Chorus of Guests, 151 Tableau. 

Dividing kindred voices in octaves is seldom done, 8 [g^pj; n etc., 

except perhaps in the basses « [l^sles IP ^^®" *^® progression of 
parts demand it, or it is required to double the bass part in octaves. 

Ivan the Terrible, Act III [68] — Final chorus (cf. Ex. 312). 

Sadko 341 — Final chorus. 


146 — 

A beautifully round tone results from doubling men's and women s 
voices in octaves 8 [fX+Bas«3. 



Final chorus. 

Brilliance and vigour is achieved when sopranos and altos pro- 
gress In thirds doubled in octaves by tenors and basses also in 

thirds: 8 

Sopr, "1^ 
Altos r 
Ten. I3 

Examples : 

Mlada, Act I 24 ; Act II, before 


The Golden Cockerel 


On the rare occasions when the whole chorus progresses in 

double octaves the usual arrangement is: 

Sopr. + Altos "1 tj « rSopr. 

^ fTen. J **' or else ° [Altos + Ten. "I „ 
[Basses Basses I ' 

Examples : 
Snegourotchka [31 9j. 
Sadko [182] . 

Voices fdioisi); harmonic use of the mixed chorus. 

The purely harmonic progression of a four-part mixed chorus 
is more natural and resonant when the harmony is of the widely 
divided order, so that the volume of tone is equally distributed 


No. 307. Sadko 144 — Beginning of 3i^ tableau. 

To secure a well-balanced forte chord in close part writing the 
following distribution is recommended: 

rSopr. I 
LSopr. II 
[Ten. I 
[Ten. II 
rSasses I 
[Basses II. 

— 147 — 

Three harmonic parts in the high register (2 sopranos and altos) 
are doubled an octave lower by 2 tenors and the \^ basses. The 
lower part is undertaken by the 2i^ basses. In this manner the 
tenors sing in the soprano octave, the isl basses in the alto octave 
and the 2^ basses are independent. 

Examples : 

Snegourotchka 327 — End of the work; 

Mlada, Act II 20 — Procession of Princes. 

Ivan the Terrible, Act II |_19J (cf. Ex. 212). 

Division of parts can be adopted when one of them is entrusted 
with a melody, the remainder forming a sufficiently full accom- 
paniment. The choice of parts to be divided depends upon the 
range of the upper one. When a harmonic-melodic phrase is 
repeated in different keys and registers, it may be necessary to 
distribute the parts and divide them in another manner, so as to 
maintain proper choral balance. As an illustration I give two 
extracts of identical musical context, the second {F major) being 
a third higher than the first {D major). In the first example the 
altos are added to the sopranos to strengthen the melody; the 
tenors and basses divisi form the harmony. In the second example 
the melody being a third higher may be given to the sopranos 
alone; the altos therefore take part in the harmony, and conse- 
quently the lower parts are divided in a different way. 


Sadko 1 173 1 and [ittJ (cf. Ex. 205 and 206); compare also the 
same music in G major [Tso]. 

No. 309— 310. Ivan the Terrible, Act I 


Example 307 is an instance of widely-spaced four-part writing 
forming the harmonic basis, with the melodic idea in the orchestra. 
In Example 308, the same in musical context, the melodic figure 
is given to the sopranos, and among the other parts which form 
the harmony the tenors are divided. 

Example : 

No. 308. Sadko [T52] . 


— 148 — 

In polyphonic writing exceeding 4 part harmony the voices should 
be divided so as to obtain the necessary number of actual parts. 
One part may be divided into as many as three different parts, 
3 sopranos, 3 altos etc. 

Examples : 
No. 3 12. Ivan the Terrible, Act III [59] — Final chorus. 
— Final chorus. 



Mlada, Act IV 1 35-36 1 — Final chorus. 

In fugato writing and fugal imitation for mixed chorus the 
distribution is generally in four parts, but this number may be 
increased for cumulative effects as in the example quoted. In such 
cases the composer should be careful as to the arrangement of 
the final chord, the summit and climax of the passage. After the 
entry of the last of the voices the progression 0/ such a passage 
should be handled with a view to the tone of the final chord. 
The treatment should be such that concords produced by divided 
voices or different groups of voices retain their full valu6; and 
if the final chord be a discord its effect may be heightened by 
means of crossing of parts. The reader is advised to examine 
carefully the progression of parts leading up to the final chord 
in each of the examples given above, paying special attention to 
the distribution of these final chords. Crossing of parts must not 
be effected at random. The arrangement of choral parts follows 
the natural order of register and can only be altered for short 
spaces of time to give momentary prominence to some melodic 
or declamatory phrase. 


Ivan the Terrible, Act I [79], Act II \T\, Act III 


B. Men's chorus and women's chorus. 

In writing a three-part female chorus the division should be either 
Sopr I Sopr. Ten. I Ten. 

Sopr. 11 or Altos I; the same for men: Ten. II or Bass I. The choice 
Altos Altos II Bass Bass II 

of distribution depends upon which voice is to predominate, or the 
register in which the group is to be placed. The manner of divid- 

— 149 — 

ing the parts may change, one following the other at will. In 
four-part^ harmonic writing the method of division is self-evident: 

Sopr. I Ten. I 

Sopr. II Ten. II 

Altos I Bass I 

Altos II Bass II 

To give prominence to a melody in the middle part in three- 
part harmony, the following method may be adopted: 

Sopr. I Ten. I 

Sopr. II -f Altos I, or Ten. II + Bass I. 

Altos II Bass II 

If, in three-part writing, the melody has to stand out in the upper 
part, the harmony may be either widely-divided or close. 


Ivan the Terrible, Act I 



(Women's chorus). 

Sadko, before |i8il — Men's chorus (cf. Ex. 27). 
No. 311. Sadko 1 270-272 1 — Women's chorus. 

In four-part choral writing close harmony is preferable, other- 
wise the upper part will be in too high a register and the range 
of the bottom part too low. 



Male chorus. 

Ivan the Terrible, Act II 


Female chorus (cf. Ex. 296). 

Distribution in two parts which is generally polyphonic does 
not call for any special remarks; the same may be said of chorus 
in unison. 

Examples : 
— Male chorus. 



Mlada, beginning of Act I 

Ivan the Terrible, Act III 




Female chorus. 

If male and female choruses are Handled in a purely harmonic 
manner close part writing should be adopted. This is the only 
way to secure proper balance of tone in chords given to voices 

— 150 — 

of the same kind. Successions of chords in three parts are more 
frequent than those in four; sometimes a series of chords is 
practicable only in two parts. 





Chorus of Birds. 
— Chorus of Flowers (cf. Ex. 26). 

In fugato writing, and fugal imitation in three parts, allotted to 
a chorus composed of voices of one kind, the principal subject is 
given to two parts, the counter subject to one; by this method 
the doubled themes will stand out to better advantage. 

Sadko [20-21 

*The Tsar's Bride 


Male and female choruses, apart from the part they play as 
individual unities, may be introduced as separate groups in mixed 
choruses alternating with the whole ensemble. 


Snegourotchka 198 — Hymn of Tsar Berendey's Subjects (cf. 
Ex. 166). 

As a general rule a female chorus does not contain the real 
harmonic bass part when this part is situated in the low 
register, so that no octaves are formed between the real bass 
and the lower choral voice. Harmony in a chorus for women is 
generally given to the three upper parts, the lower part acting as 
accompanying bass. It will be noticed that this rule may lead to 
the employment of chords of the sixth and empty consecutive 
fourth's and fifth's which should be avoided. In example No. 311 

{Sadko 270), this is remedied by the high position of the bass 
part; later an empty interval (i) occurs, but only for a moment, 
and still farther on another such interval is avoided by the union 

of all the voices in the octave (f). In Ex. No. 304 {Sadko [saj) the 
harmonic bass in the low register is carefully omitted, but when 
transferred to the upper register it is doubled. 

— 151 — 

I conclude the present chapter with the following necessary 

1. The operation of dividing voices undoubtedly weakens their 
resonance, and as the reader will have observed, one of the prin- 
cipal factors in good orchestration is equal balance of tone in 
the distribution of chords. But in choral writing the question is 
somewhat different. The orchestra, even after repeated rehearsal 
always plays from music; the operatic chorus, on -the other hand, 
sings by heart. The chorus master can carry out the composer's 
instructions as to the division of parts in one way or another, 
varying and adjusting the number of singers to each part. By 
manipulating some shade of expression he can maintain a balance 
of tone between divided and undivided voices. In orchestral 
material the composer has to handle a great number of timbres, 
widely different in character and volume of tone. In the chorus 
there are but four qualities. A chorus moving about the stage 
cannot convey varying shades of expression so exactly as an 
orchestra seated at the desk. It may therefore be safely assumed 
that a composer is entitled to some licence in the question of 
dividing choral parts; dealing with the orchestra involves greater 
foresight and care. 

2. In trying to obtain equal balance in writing three-part choruses 
for male or female chorus I have often resorted to the method of 
doubling the middle part as recommended on p. 149. The chorus 
master is at liberty to equalise the chorus by transfering voices 
from one part to another. In choruses divided into three parts 
I have noticed that chorus masters are in the habit of giving the 
upper part to Sopr. I, or Ten. I, and the two lower parts to Sopr. II 
and Ten. II divided. I consider this arrangement unsound, as the 
balance of parts can never be equal. The attention of chorus 
masters is called to the necessity of strengthening middle parts, for 
the expedient of giving prominence to the upper part concerns 
melody alone and leaves harmony out of the question. 

3. Skilful management of choral parts is a fairly safe guarantee 
of clear and satisfactory performance. Miscalculations in writing 
are a great hindrance to study, and the most experienced chorus 
may come to grief through faulty progression of parts. If the 
progression of parts is correct, if discords are properly prepared, 

— 152 — 

sudden and remote modulations, even of the harshest and most 
uncommon kind will be comparatively simple and may be ap- 
proached with some degree of confidence. This is a fact which 
composers do not always bear in mind, but singers know it well 
and appreciate its importance to the full. As an instance 1 quote 
the very difficult modulation which occurs in Ex. No. 169 {Sadko 
). I doubt whether it could be sung if written in any other 


way. Careful endeavour on the part of a composer is better than 
useless struggle inflicted upon the performer. 

July 3m (Aug. 13!!i) 1 )05. 



N? 1. "Sheherazade/' 2^^ movement. 
N91.„Sheherazade," 2"!^ mouvement. 

B J) 144. 

^ rt Ci.(.A) \^ ^ \^ — r^^ -^ J) 

Viol. P grazioso 
Il.div. P'^i 

j/iiT j"1 

<t j Hi- 










V-c. J» 
e C-b. pizz. 



















Faff. ±1 







I t B ^ » 









JL-i r— p- 


■ pp pp i r p 


r v-k-. 

jocco piuf 





t^l y y 

iB-"» »;^ 







I arco r*^ 
11/ V ^c. yj>^ ^ 



/>^ ro ptu -^- 










~p — =^ 

C.{j n Isempre pizz. w^ 






inU^j parte 

V-c. i jjjj 












y/ ly — .y ^ 














N9 2. ''The Legend of the invisible city of Kitesh! 
N9 2.„Legende de la ville invisible de Kitej'/ 

Cl.(B^ *'- ^^■ 

\\\\\\\\ JnJ'.^f 

-chdes vers mo», 

me pour un ca - res-sant sa - lut, 

^^f. -f f^^ 

N?3. "Spanish Cwpriccio/' 
N? 3. „Capriccio Espagnol!' 

Jail ^ j) J-^ i' i ^ 

i r% J.- -i 

8 N94. "Pan Voyevoda." 
N9 4. „ Pan le Voievodet' 
fl45] Lento. J :58. 

N?5. ''The Golden Cockerel: 
N9 5. „Le Coq d'Or." 

jl93l Andantino. J.= 96. 
J vie. 

N?6. "Sadko," symphonic tableau (p. 2{ij. 
N9 6. „Sadko',' tableau symphonique (p. 28), 

Allegretto. J.138. 

/ ClAB) 


Fl a2 

N?^. '^Pan Voyevoda," nocturne 
N9 7. „ Pan le Voievode," nocturne. 
Lento. J: 58. 

c; lA) 



N?8. "Snegourotchka.' 
N9 8.„Sniegourotchka'.' 

Andante maestoso e pass^ionato. Jrsa. 

Fl. a2_ 

N?9. "Snegourotchka:' 

N*? 9. „Sniegourotchka'.' 

N9 10. "The Legend of the i7ivisible city of Kitesh': 

N? 10. „Legende de la ville invisible de Kitej." 

t^ J-66 

Ob. -^*'- 




C'wniprendsbien. o bel-le fi -an-ceei et at-tachea mespro-pos leiirpoids. 


^ N? 11. ''The Golden Cockerel: 

N9 11.,, Le Coq d'Or." 

11201 (alia breve. J=5o) 

1® N9 12. ^^Sheherazade," S'K!^ movement (commencement). 
N<? 12.„Sheherazade'/3"Q^ mouvement (debut). 
Andantino quasi allegretto. J= 52. 

Viol. le II unis. 



J- ^il 

f p ■> 1 

. JJ J I A 


K" r p » ■' 





/»oc(3 cresc. 

N? 13, ''The Golden Cockerel" (p. 87). 
N9 13. mLc Coq d' Or "(p. 87). 
(Andantino. J =88.) 



Do'ii^a'^'^ - chu de nous rap-])or - - terdes chants. 

ve . V 1 - 

2 Fl.e Fl.picc 

20 2 Fl. e Fl.picc 

I ,,< I ^ j' ^ 

I f V J ^ ^ 


^ J^TP/tf: "The Golden Cockerel'' (p. as). 
N9l6.,,Le Coq d'Or"(p.88;. 
(Andantino. J = 88.) 


N? 17. ''Snegourotchka/' 
N? 17. „ Sniegourotchka ." 

12881 Andante. J. 69. 

2 Fi.e Fl. pice. 







^ p ^LU 

/ Timp, 





■^i i fgrf 




Viol.Ie II unis. 










r L-££f 





4 Cor. 

» B « 


/ Timp. 



,' A^Cor. 


Tim p. 

^^^ — rr 





N? 18. ''The May Night/' Act III. 
N9 18.,, La Nuit de Mai',' 3'^^ acte. 

L '^Allegretio quasi andantinoj 


Noschantsvontoharmerlejeunehom-rae, nos ri - resfbntftiirleneil- 

JT] s) U^ ";) j\s^ I g ^J)J) J) J U' i^ 

Viol. I. 

Nousai- nionsje-ge - res om - bres. ajou- ersousuiiciel e- toi - le 







^ r} J 

J. ^v j^ 

Altri V-c. 






V r » 

y j V - 

» ' V 

t »^ » 

26 iV? 19. ''Sheherazade," 2^d movement. 
N9l9.„Sheherazade',' 2"!^ mouvement. 

p y. 152 

/ Fl.picc 

N9 20. "Sadko." 

N9 20.„Sadko." 



^ N9 21. "The Legend of the invisible city of Kitesht 
2^ N? 2l.„Legende de la ville invisible de Kitejf 

Mais, vol-ci de - ja la 
> -Viol. I. 

mort pro - ohe. de Ten - fer les pei-nes cru - el - le.'^I 

2H N9 22. ''The Tsar's Bride" 

N9 22. „La Fiancee du Tsar." 

N9 23. "The Legend of Tsar Saltan: 
No23.„Legende duTsar Saltan:' 


go N? 24. '"Stidko" (p. 336). 

iti. Va voir la belle et gTandc ci - te, 

ta-ohe de_voir le do-g'e_puis- 

Ten. Va 

]0 Qj . ^^1 

^ 1 I I I f" I Il7i cj I r ■ i r ii tj ^ ^f ^^^ 

Bassi^ Va voir la belle et grande ci - te, 

' Mt 

-te. A Ve - iii 

Arpa e Pianiuo. 

se tu d ois al - ler, Sad-ko! ^^^ ^^^ 



N9 25. "Ivan the Terrible/' Act HI. 
N? 25. „ La Pskovitaine," 8"ie acto. 

Moderate, (alia breve.) 


32 N? 26. "Snegourotchka" 

N9 26.;,Sniegourotchka." 







Dans des yeux,bl6u- et, ra - yon 


i iJ ii i ' i. i i 

2 Viol. soli. 

rrnrn if f 

m 27. "SaTiko" (p. 296). 
^ N9 27. „S^dko"(p.296). 

(Allegro alia marcia. J=i3a.) 


m 28. "STiegourotchka/' 
j^j fJBTl N9 28- „Sniegourotchka. I ^j-, , " 


Misguir. l,j 

yii'if ' r * y p r 'f pfp" p I" r^P^ p^ 

pie - res, 

un modeste et cmin-tif re-g-ard. 

pu-di - que- 

. Viol. ^^'''""" 




<■ flp 







Y— f-lF 


jv V-c. e C-b 

Iil> fl M ^ 




N9 29. "Antar." 
NP 29. „Antar." 
[48] (Allegro risoluto.) 


N? 30. "Sheherazade/' 3^^ movement (p. 131). 
N? 30. „Sheherazade" 8"}® mouvement (p.i3i). 


TT^— /i^ 

N9 SI. "The Legend of the invisible city of KitesA. 

N9 31. „Legende de la ville invisible de Kitej" 


Je doD-ne4tiis tout le sang demesvei - - nes vo - Ion -tier &) et ma vie,, omonbien-ai 



N9 32. "Antar: 

N? 32.„Antar." 



N9 33. ''Snegourotchka/ 
^^ N9 33.„Sniegourotchka" 
12151 Vivace. J= iso. 


N9 34. '^The Legend of the invisible city of Kitesh: 
*** N9 34.,, Legende de la ville invisible de Kitejf' 
S^ Andante tranquillo. J: 5«. 

Jour et luiit chez nousle saint of - fioe est chan-te 

san.s re - 

N? 35. ''Spanish Capriccio." 
N9 35. „Capriccio Espagnol." 


^ N? 36. ''The Legend of Tsar Saltan. 

N? 36. „Leg:ende duTsar Saltan" 
18161 Andante. J = 66. ^ 

Fl. pice. Solo. ^ 

Fl.pioc.e Fl.I. 

N? 37. ''Sheherazade/' 4'A movement (p. 140). 
N9 37. „Sheherazadey4"l^ mouvement ip.iiOj. 
PI Vivo. J = J. = 88. 


3 3 

^ PP 

N? 38. ''Ivan the Terrible/' Act III (p. 236). 
** N? 38. „La Pskovitaine'' 3"}*-' acte (p. 236 j. 
Fl.picc.e 2 


Fl. piece 2 








iy? 39. "The Legend of the itwisible city of Kitesh. 
N9 39. „Leg-ende de la ville invisible de Kitej." 

[441 J. = 60. 

Pl.o -alto (Py. 



j¥«r p rrr 






Cl. basso. 



f' iii i'ip! 






i,h pj Ji J. I J d^ 


chan - te 

dans les bois 

mer- veil - leu 

se- ment. 


V-le div 

j ^h r"vrj^p 














48 N? 40. ^'Sheherazade," 2nd movement (p. 43). 
N'.* 40. „wSheherazader 2"}® mouvement (p. 43) 
Andantino. *^ = n2. 

Capriccioso, quasi recitando 
Fa*?. 1. Solo. ^^^^ ■ ^^ry^Ji^ — -^^ > 

dolcc ed esprcss 
III. **C':/n sord. •** ^^*- 

N9 41. "Snegourotchka/' 

N? 41 .jjSniegourotchka'/ 

Larghetto. J-zso. 



Snieff. dolce assai 

Jeconnaisjeoon - nals, ma me 

re, tous les chants — 

P Piip- rt.\^ m 

les plus beaux. Le ohant. 

de Pa - lou - et 


qui monte et rit au ciel d'e-te 

Et le plain -tif ap- 


-pel du cy - gne sur I'ioau dor-man - te de .l^B-tang 

N9 42. "The Golden Cockerel" (p. 75). 

^^ N9 42.„Le Coq d'Or"(p.75). 
Andantino . J = 7« 


N9 43. "The Golden Cockerel" (p. 119). 
N9 43. „Le Coq d'0r"{p.ii9). 
Andantino. J = 88. 


N? 44. "Spanish Capriccio" 
N9 44. „Capriccio Espagnol'.' 


Cor. ingl. Solo 

2V? 45. ''The Golden Cockerel: 
N9 45.„Le Coq d'Or." 

[l] Larghetto assai. j]= «*• 

Dodon. L^oiselier du roi apporte une perruche verte, attachee a un anneau par une chaine 

Dodon Elle chante, fait claquer sa lang^e, siffle. 

52 iV? 46. ""Mlada,"' Act II (f.206) 
N9 46. „Mlada;' 2"?^ acte (p. 206). 
(Al)egro vivo.) 

Cl.picc.(D\^ . ^ fi^s. . L L ♦ ^ 

N9 47. "Snegourotchka'' 
N? 47. „Sniegourotchka!' 

I^gi Moder ato assai. w. so 

^^N^- < J I f T p P P r? I p- p p p ^^^ 

Mod ame e-tait Joyeusea - vant de teoonnai-tre, ma 


vie heureuse e-tait sans lar-Tne8,sansangi(^sHeeteanssouf-fVan - ce. 
■^ ^ ^ ^4 

— H 

N9 48. "Snegouroicihia,. ' 
N9 48. „Sniegourotchkaf' 
12461 Maestoso. 

Cl. basso (b) 


Trem-bledonc, en-ftuiti c'est vrai, je suis ter-ri-ble. Oui, je veux pu-nir Tof- 


jm ^' ^ 




n^y f^ t^ P p H ' 'Tl r i i- p V / u^-P^ P P r? 

-fen- se qui m'a fait rougir le front- 

Et me voir en - fin ven - 

-ge de ma douleur et de ma hon 

N9 49. "Vera Scheloga.'' 

N9 49. „La Borarine Vera Chelogaf 
Andantino. J«88. 

Fag. I- Solo 


je ne puis comrpren-dre. 

' /K a H I ten.assat, i 

J J 1 


Viol. 'jt^t/ 

11. ten.assai 




J r p 

r r p 

54 N9 50. 'The Golden Cockerel " (^.330). 
NO 50 „Le Coq d'Or'' (p. 330> 

F1.I.II. %%. %\ 

N9 51 "Mlada," Act UI (p. 359) 

N? 51. „Mlada" S^e actr (p. 859). 
(Meno mo890.) 

Solo—. ^. • , . ♦» >^-.-,ii- ^L- ■ 


56 N9 52. '-'Snegourotchkaf 
W 52. ,,Sniegourotchka" 
[i (Moderate). 

Par - mi vous,6jeu-nes fil-lesine ca-ohoz vous pas niaKou-pa-va bien - ai - me-e' 




^^ -^ 


^=^ w 

CoroNous ne te don-ne-rons 

pas notre a -mi- e! Nous ne te don-ne-rons 

pas ta Kou-pa-va! 

N9 53. ''The Legend of the invisible city of Kitesh" (p. 49i)* 
M9 53. ,,Legende de la villc invisible de Kitej" (p.49i). 
(Moderate assai. J x 72.) 


Fl.MI. a 2 


son - - nent flu - tu^, g'ouss-li! 

N*^ 54. ''Snegourotchka " (p. 133) 

N9 54.„Sniegourotchka" (p t3H) 

Voi-ei de Por:pre-nez,niu.sbel-les fil-les. Je siiis joyeuxde vous pa-yer ran-(^on 

58 N9 55. "Snegourotchka " (p. 866) 
N9 55. „Sniegourotchka" (p.sfis). 

Fi.pioo/Alleflfro <Jri26). ^ ^ . 

eFi.i t ^fr> — ^^ — ^E> — --N^! 

' N9 56. ''bpanish Capriccio." 
N?56. „Capriccio Espagncl!' 

iWI ■» « = 

N9 57. "Snegourotchka" (p.306). 

N9 57. „Sniegourotchka" fp.306V 
Allegro con anima. 



M sc" ■ ^® fantome de Snieg'ourotchka se montre dans la foret. 


NP 58. ''Sheherazade," 3rd movement. 

N9 58. „Sheherazade*' 3"1^' mouvement. 

^^'''riff'nril rTt-ti^ r^-^ni r^^ 

Fui.j-j^^jj^ rri-iT-i iT^^rni 

J ^ 

'pM. r Cii; mr " ru 3^ ^ 


N9 59. '"Vera Scheloga'' 
NO 59.„La Boiarine Vera Cheloga." 
Moderate assai. J. 96. 

>CM(A )^^ 


Je ne fus pas heureuse, mais resig-ne-e, Ivan Semenitoh m'aai-mee a la fo4i-e 

N9 60. "Mlada," Ad UI (p. 389). 

N9 60. „MladaV 3™® acte (p. 389). 
Andante quasi allegretto. 



N9 61. "Mlckda," Act JJ (j>. 205). 
N9 61. „Mlada',' 2"2« acte ,p..205K 
(Allegro vivo.) 

Cor. unis. 

vA Fl.picc 


%mmm^f ^ 

JV? 62. "Serviliar 

N9 62. „Servilia!' 
Iggi Andante. J = 7a. 

lueur roug-e; dans un broiiillard parait le spectre d'une vieille- 
Piatti. I 

-^ i 



/f. Le Spectre. 


Quidoncinae-voquee ? 

ful ponticeilo 

N9 63. ''The Tsar's Bride" 

•. , N9 63. „La Fiancee du Tsar." 

Elol Adagio. J.- 48. 



N9 64. "Spanish Capriccio" (p. 57). 
* N9 64. „Capriccio Espagnol" ^p 57). 

Fl>»icc.ea ¥\. 

^^,-— ■' — . ^,— — ^ J, 


N? 65. '"Aniar," isj version, 3V^ movement (commencement). 

N9 65. „Antar," premiere version, 3"1® mouvement (debut). 
Allegro risoluto. 

Fl. pice. 

N? 66. "Sheherazade ," S^J^ movement. 
N? 66. „Sheherazacle*/ 3"'.^mouveinent. 


N? 67. "Spanish Capriccio" (p.79). 
N9 67. nCapriccio Espagnol" cp 79). 
Fi.ploc. tri 


jy /eroce 

2V? 6S. ''The Christmas Night 
•^ N9 68. „La Nuit de Noel!' 



' J J ! ■ J ^ 



,1 f f 


QuVUe est dou-ce, re r pe-tee dans Tombre e - paisse des^ 


.val - Ions! 

N? 69. "The Legend of the invisible city of Kitesh: 
gg N9 69. „Leg-ende de la ville invisible de Kitej." 




Nuit et joui' c'est un o)iaiit nier-veil - leux< tres 

7ii N? 70. ''The Legend of the invisible city of Kite sh: 
N9 70. jjLegende de la ville invisible de Kitej." 



LLi.r m^ 


3 Tr-bni. 

74 N9 7L "Sadkor 
N? 71.„Sadkol' 

f34a] Allegro. i-.wi. 

roi tout puissant, roi cru-el «lesiners> tu ifa-vais a toi qu'u-in> t/Ctc on bois. 
Vioi.u. tr tr tr 

*** iV? 7^. "SnegourotchkaP 

N? 72. „Sniegourotchka!' 
Allegro. J=ia«f. 



jirt iij n 






C1.(BJ I 


i. » J1 r 

























f'ii'O J lr?>^^ 




Ten Le ruisseau murmu-rt , 

lerucherbourdoii - ne, chantons en-semble 

la, sais'jn nou-vel - le. 


Le ruisseau murtnu-i*e, 

le rucherbourdon - ne, chantons en - semble 
\/, IT H- l *. 


la saison nou-vel - le 



N? 73. ''Antar" 3rd movement 
N9 73. „Antar;* 8"^*^ mouvement 

^ Allegro. 



14. '"Shehera zade ," ^^.^ movement {p. 51). 
N*^ 74. nShehcrazadeJ' ii"l'' mouvem^^i.t (V-si 
Molto moderato. 
Ob. recit. 


'^^ N9 75. "Sadko" (p. 498). 
N? 75. „Sadko" (p.498). 
(Allegro J-:6e alia breve.) 

Fl.I.e Ob.I.II. 


f rrrfrrrrrfi 


■r r^r Tijc nr 




ffl^^ ^^^ 


3 Tr bni. 


f r r -^r r Ir 

| i t{^' r' r 




N9 76. 'The May Night." Act III fcommencememt). 
N? 76. „Le Nuit de Mai(' 8™« acte (debut). 

Fi. Molto andante. 





























con sord 


•78 N9 77. "Sheherazade" 4^^ movement (p. £04). 

N? 77. „Sheherazade(' 4".^« mouvement (p. 204). 
Allegro non troppo maestoso. J- :6o 

y ^FLpicc. 

Timp. .ff^ 


■^"""S; // 


no. 6 

Tamb. 4 
pice, ft 








a 2 maestoso 


Tuba, ■a-'maestos. 








ECg r ^ 




^rrrrrf ' r < -^ 

N? 78. "Mlada," Act UI Xp.350). 
N? 78. „MladaV 3"}« acte (p. 350) 

(Allegro non troppo.) 

^A 2 C1.(B) 


Du milieu de la ronde infemnle surg'it Tchernobog, sous la forme d'un bone et avec sacour; 

derriere lui Kachtchei aveo ses goussli , Tcherv, Topeletz,Tchouma et Morena. 
v.-l«. ir\ tt\ . * :► Jb^ 


N9 79. "Mlada," Act III (p. 370) 
N9 79. „Mlada;' 3"!© arte (p.sro). 
Sostenuto e maestoso. 

Viens,ap-pa-rais'. Sorsdc la iiuit d&t! ten<ps! Toi qu''a-doraientle.s roi.s lesp.itres. 

N9 80. "The May Night," Act HI. 
N? 80. „La Nuit de Mai;* 8"}® acte 
|bj (Andantino animato!) 


^ Doux zephyr, tu pas-ses comme un bavser sur les per - ven-ches 

C^ '^^^ ' C^ ^"^ ' ^"^ ^^^ ' P^ ^^ 


^ Ymsi. "Sadkor 
3551 N?81.„Sadkol' 
(Andante. /= 76.) 


Dors pai - si - ble, her - be ten - dre. Her - be ver - te mousse de soie 


Tes chants on se - duit mon coeur, Tons ils ont ra - vi - men ame 

N? 82. '-'Sadko." 
N9 82. „Sadko'/ 

153 (Andante. J=7».) 



V ■ dim. PP 

^ • . Sur le lac na«ent en b&nde des cyynes blaocs et des canards gris. 

8 Fl 

-^ /I «/^^ i^ )t. ^ ^ i^ i^^ i^ i^ ^ i^ i'i 




rWiif p p^p p p p P:^ 

»*p M P 



m — H-i^-T L-T-i r r r r r r 

/ __ 

— L_r_j L 

— **«: F= 


' Sadko. 

Jl u, = J = . 


^ -}^-^ * ; ; 


III) tip J |3l|- =i^ PI tfP 1 -3+» 0' "=D 

BKY ^ VL^ J 

•S." kolce 

F — ^ -^ 

— ifc=i- 

3 Fl 

I fm "r^^r^r?^ 


N? 83. ''Sadkor 
N9 83. „Sadk.o." 
1123] Andante. 


A lti. ^^yg"^^ blancs, dans lea coulisses) 

i^OAl ti. ^^Js"*'^ "'^"cs, aans lea couiissesj , K. i 

1 1^ ' ( J! li^^^^^-l J),iJ J'J I ll^ '^J-' ^' ■''ll'l ^^'' 

Cy - g7iesblanca,et mou-et - tes grises, re- toumonsiplongeons dans le lac! 
V-Ie. arco 

N9 84. ''The Legend of Tsar Saltan" (p. 54). 
N9 84. „Legenae duTsar Saltan" (p 54j, 

(Allegretto alia raarcla. j:9«.) 


N9 85. "Ivan the Terrible," overture (deginning). 
N9 85. „La Pskovitaine" ouverture (debut). 
»Fi. Maestoso. 

90 N9 86. "Sadko." 
N?86. „Sadko!' 

|3| (L argo. el.:44.) 

N9 87. "Kashtchei the Immortal." 

N9 87. pKachtchei I'lmmortei:* 


Fi ice IJQ zJ con tuttaforza ed espressione e poco rubato 



jfcon tuttaforza ed espressione e poco rubato 

sf dim. 

na N? 88. '^Servilia." 

N9 88. „Servilia(* 

Bi| Allegro 

N9 89. "Servilia." 

N? 89. „Servilial' 




^ ' ' d ^^ 

< bj < ^h 

* ij'j *13)^ 

N9 90. ''Sheherazade/' 4'* part. 

N9 90. „Sheherazade," 4"l^ partie. 

'Vivo. J. = 8&>fu| 














flo N? 91. ''The Legend of Tsar Saltan! 

N9 91. „Leg:ende duTsar Saltan!' 

(Andante) animando povo a poco 

H Jili)Ji|L'i'i^ ^ 

Nouspleuron8,noslarjnes» rem - pli-ront lesmers, co\i-vri-ront les champs fleu-ris. 

^ ^ ^ 


h j> j> i) 



» B » P» 

ii * ^ * 





JV? 92. "The Golden Cockerel/' 
N9 92.„LeCoq d'Or." 

|g8l An(iantino. J = 88 


N? 93. ^'Snegourotchka" (p. 269). 
N? 93. „Sniegourotchka" (p- 269) 













a2 ^"^ 

f r 



^r ; ' uu ' u c; 'r r t ; ' uwuw r 



100 N9 94. '^negourotchka'' (p. 271). 
N9 94. v.Sniegourotchka" (p. 27i). 

kViol.Iell unis 

Lj u ' ' ^ L-T ' r — r 


n n 

ri r3 ^=^=^ 



/ Viol. I e II nnis 

i' I n"T^ 


LJ L-f ' LJ u * ' r 

N9 95. "Snegourotchka." 
^9 95. „Sniegourotchka." 






■i Fl. pic 


ff dim. 

N9 96. "Ivan the Terrible," ActUI (p. sis). 
N? 96. „La Pskovitaine," 8"]« acte (p.aiS). 
F}- (Moderato alia breve) allarg. poco 



104 NO 97. "Snegourdtchka." 

N9 97. „Sniegourotchkal* 

Grave e raaesioso. w=60. 

Im] a2 

N9 98. "The Legend of Tsar Saltan: 

N9 98. „Legende du Tsar Saltan'.' 
(Maestoso con moto. J- 84.) 

Fl.picc. 11351 



PI picc. 

N? 99. "Snegourotchka" ( 
N9 99. ,,Sniegourotchka" (p.iw). 
Animato assai. J. 126. 


v Viol../ 

Mai - heu • reu- se, mal- heu - reu - se 



II. :^ 

P » "P » 

Vous ton - tes 

108 ^^ ^^^- '"^^^ Christmas Night 
NPIOG. „La Nuit de Noel" 
Andante. J -72. 

4A ■" 

^? iOl. "The Christmas Night." 

N9lOi: „La Nun de Noel." 

1210 1 Andante. J)- 112. 


Sopr. I. 

]''' I . ? 



r p^i'^JIeEr.^ 



La sa^van - ce 

Ko - Jia-da, 

^^ J l iJ^JjuP 

j J> i^ ' 

Ko . lia-d^ la 1 jenne est la 

J ij'rj J' 

Alti I. 

La s'a-van - ce 

Ko - lia-da. 

Ko - lia-da — la. 

jeuiie est lu 

Alti II. 

La s"a-van - ce 

Ko - lia-da 

Ko - lia-da la 


La s'a - van - ce Kx> - lia 





sur uii trai - nc-axi.bien pa -re. 

Sour. II. 

.... , siir uii trai - neau bi - prnr- re 
Altl !• 




siir nil trai -, neau bi - gur-re! 



' 7 * ' d 

AIti II. 

La voi - la. 

sur un trai-nt-aii 

bi - g'ar - rn 

voi - la 

sur un trai -neau bi - gar - re 

m J j^^J 




v'i*j i H r ^1 » 

J_j^j «^ ^^p 

-J ^ 





I V j y 


N? i02. "Snegourotchka." 
N9102. „Snieg:ourotchka!' 
H,87| Andantino. j.66 

Fi. \ ^ 



N9 103. "The Legend of the invisible rityof Kitesh! 
**2 N? 103 . „Legende de la viUe invisible de Kitej " 
[s] (Larghetto. J = sa) 

pp' ^ — -r I " T 

^ N? 104. ''The Golden Cockerel^ 

N?104.„Le Coqd^Or." 
[4] (Lento. J = go. 

C=/ t ilJ 

N? 105. "The Christmas Night" (p. JS47). 
N?105.„La Nuit de Noel" (p. 347). 
Adagio. J 

N? 106. "The Christmas Night," Prelude. 
N9 106. „La Nuit de Noel" Prelude. 

Adagio. M.M.J=B6. _, _ flxsTi^ 


N9 107. ""Snegourotchka/* 
*1* N9 107. „SniegourotchkaV 


Wr t/J v| f LLJ 1 1 

ir f 1 1 

;,«; fff *»f fff 

¥ f 

lA^i yj^7 1 * wj T 1 

i . ^ > t 

tre, 80 

leil, o dieu do flam - ne- 

N9 108. ''Snegourotch^* 
N? 108.„Sniegourotchka'/ 

la ten-te 

iV? 109. "Sheherazade/' isjmovemiu {f.a). 
N9 109. „Shehera2?ide, 1®.^ mouvement (p.8>. 

(Largo. Jr48.) 


iV? no. "The Legend of Tsar Saltan " (p.i97). 
N9 110. „Legende du Tsar Saltan" (p.i97). 
(Allegro. J = 126) 



Voix des e.sprits dans les airs (6-10 Tenors dans la coulisse) 


g i »r Pv^Pir «r s i 'Qh 



Gvi - don tri - oni - phe! Mai - lieur a nous tous! 
Voix du niagicien (6-10 Basses dans la coulisse) 


y-le. con sord. 

Ah, je de - 

A? Ul. "The Legend of Tsar Saltan." 
*** N9 HI. „LeVende du Tsar Saltan f 
iilSI Andante. J « u. 

rLpico.J ^3 3 

De la mer sort V Oiseau-cyj^e, qu^ illuminent les rayons I'unaires 

1^ N? m. "Sadko," (ofemnf of Uu 2*i tableau). 
N9112. „Sadkor (debut du 2 me tableau). 

GS Andante. JrTs. 


La rive du lac Ilmen^ une ^rande pierre blanohe. Claire nuifc d'*et6; Le ordissantdelalune 



a son dcclin. Parait Sadko: il s''asseoit sur une pierre, tenant a la main ses goussli. 


N? 113. ''The Tsar's Bride'.' 

N9113. „LaFiancee duTsar." 
|126| Alleffro nontroppo. J = u 


M P P f ^p 






to^'^r^ ^ ry^ ff 

iTf\ T . i/ p 


%Cor. ingl. 




"r^ r ' 'r»rV 


^ C1.(B> 


|iiiii < ^[^ 



*>i «r' 

p |"r^r^*rttr'i^ff 



y^ ^ 

Bomeli (du dedans) 

^^p p p r » 


^ 7 h i ft ff JV', ^ 


Qui ft-appe-i - ci? Tu ver-ras si tu ouvrt-s. 

N9 114. 'The Legend of the invisible city of Kitesh" (p. 
N9 114. „Legende de la ville invisible de Kitej " (p. 127). 

(Allegro. J = J20.) 


Qui nous don - ne du pain Est un bon sou - ve - rain. 

N? Its. ''The Legend of the invisible city of Kitesh" (f.257). 
N9 115. „Legende de la ville invisible de Kitej" fp.257) 

(J . 92) 


N? tie. "The Legend of the invisible city of Kitesh'.' 

N9 116. „Legende de la ville invisible de Kitej." 
(Moderato assai. J = 92^ 

N? U7. ''The Golden Cockerel" (p. 3is). 
120 N? 117. ,.Le Coq d'Or" (p. 315). 

f J : 120) riten. poco 

^ N? 118. "Snegourotchka, 

N9118. „Snie^ourotchka(' 

i^ (Allegro. 1= 76) 

Mais non^ au - pres de toi Ta - mour m'e-veil -le a la vi - e 


Ton bras vail- lant in'o-treint, mon front s'ap-puie a ton e - paule 

N? 119. "Snegourotchkat 

N9 119. „Sniegourotchka? 
13181 (Larghetto. J.= sa) 


.ci.(B)^' I. ,k 1^- — ir — ; :^ 1 





f ^-^h j "": ^ 

^-"Tj. /-^^ 





'f^ -f^ 



O I r^^Tr-TJ^ 


N9 120. "Sadko." 
N9 120. „Sadko." 
I ("And ante. c)-:.:52.)_ 





rircfCf-Tr ir-^r r * rr r ^ 


co n sord. 

par-tout ou ,j i -rai,dana le nionde «'ii - tier Son 




j' r > r r. I f r f r f r fre 


Vpiis vieii-drez sa - lu - er 



ifjjiinTm jiiiiiiiiij i 

p cresc 


,o« N9 121. "Sadko." 

NO 121. „Sadko:' 

Allegro non troppo. ^ = \yi. 
.Ob. I. .— ,« 

N9 122. "Sadko." 


S (And amino. J =84.) 

-/* aOb 


k' M-^ ' clH^ 'cM 'cEdJ i ciDlr ' dlrLr 





jj j.? fl-"Cf i " r1'fa-etf^ ^ 

D\i - nevoiy ra-vis- san 

N9 123. "Kashtche'i the Immortal" (p. 119) 
N9 123. „Kachtchei rimmortel" ip.119). 
fOb'Con sord. 


JV? 124. "The Legend of the invisible city of Kitesh/* 
N9124. „Legende de la ville invisible de Kitej" 
K2I (Poco larghetto. J. -68.) 

130 jy» 2^ "The Legend of the invisible city of Kitesh" (p.89^). 
N? 125. „Legende de la ville invisible de Kitej" (p.39;^). 
Larghetto alia breve. 4^ s*- 

V-le. con sord 






V-c.I. c,^sord. 

'>t^,; nnr^n^nn\is!^ ^^^ ^ 




( s yn aa 80g4^ 



^ N9 126. "The Legend of the invisible city of Kitesh" (p.5i7), 
N9126. „Legende de la ville invisible de Kitej" (, 
(Moderato . J =96.) 

y Cor, ingl. con sord. 

Ts ppp 




Fleu - ri 


pa - reils au pal-mier, 

> PP 


PI. I. II 

Com - me monteandiantbarmcj - ni - eux 

d'ir - re-els oiseauXiChanteurs du del 

Arpa II 6n:ut,ret>,mi|>,fatt,sol{|,la,si)( glias. 

N9 127. "The Golden Cockerel." 
*32 N9127. „Le Coq d'Or!* 
ja] (Le nto. J = 6o) 


N? 128. ''The Golden Cockerel?^ 
Noi28.,.Le Coq d'Or." 

I— : — I Larffhetto. (J=52) animando pochissimo 


Pour me la • Iral - chir la peau .je mas- per - g^e (U- ro . se - e. 



N? 129. ''Snegourotchka" (p.950). 
N9 129.„Sniegourotchka" (p.a5u>. 

(Andante. J -- ea* 


N? 130. "Sadkor 


■ 575] f Allegro. J w. 

Le poisson pris au fili-t se traiisf'ornie en im linpot dor qui sfMiniUe .ni soleil. 

crcsc. molto 



^ k=^ 


i n > 

V-c.e C-b. 


cresc. niolto 

N? 131. "Sadkor 
N9131. „Saclko" 

191l I 

(Andante nontroppo. J = 84.' 


Va - giics en hur-lant as - sie-gent nos ri - va - ges et blan-ches de co-lere at- 

-f"quentnob rochers! Mab hont sur laiii«arplanentiiosrofssauvag\s E-coutantleurs>chantssansbrpnchor 

...w N^ 1S2. ''The Christmas Night" (p. 309). 
N':'132. „La Nuit dc Noel" ('.t) 




Hou-ln.u-lioii-hou liCiii^.ou ho\i-liou4iuu-hou^)oul!i;ti - ItuiI 









hon-hoii-hoii-hou-Jiouhou- hou! 



^,=^i:^ ^.=^-^=^m m m^^^ ^^s^^ 

Hou ._ 
B-tssi.//" > — - 

buu-lioii-hoii-Jioii-lioii-liuiiliip.i-liou-lu.u-lioii-hoii lion! 



^^^^3^??? I,| . 


N? 133. "The Legend of Tsar Saltan^ 
N9l33.„Legende du Tsar Saltan." 

S(Maestoso. J < 63.) 


Fl.picc. e 2F1. 


N9 134. ''The Legend of the invisible city of Kitesh!' 
N9 134. „Legende de la ville invisible de Kitej." 

Ii99| (Allegro. J . isa) 

'Tr be/ marcato 
^(c-altaF) secco_ 

4 rpvp 

[J yP? P Y 




yl> ft ^ ft » 


ifti. t pvpv 







Tr-bni. *ecfo 




Jyj Pyft^Y j[ ^ 





•J J J i J J J I J i » U J J I J ^ J iJ ^ J 

iV? i55. "The Golden Cockerel" (p. 143). 
N9l35.„Le Coq d'Or" (p. us). 

(Moderate. J = 5o.) 


V^^J V J V I? M P » I.J V J V P V I T ViJ V Jv ^ H P Vi.J>^ J^v P V 




N? 136. ''Snegourotchka" (p. 97) 
N9l36.„Sniegourotchka" (p. 97). 
Adagio. Recit. 

Bon-nes pens, ve-nezet vo-vez tous>cet-te mer-veil-le! (Sniegourotc-hka se montre'i 

m , 

"6 .<*#!;>■ 

I CORO- (Tons s'approchent dii tronc d'arbre) 


N9 137. "Servilia 
N9137. „Serviliaf' 
)Fi j- (Alle gro maestosoJ 


Piu lento, d -. io>». 

a 2 

144 JV'P/^A "The Legend of Tsar ^Saltanr 

NO 138. „Leffende du Tsar Saltan!' 

Moderate assai. J = 84 

I. II. con sord. 

N? 139. "The Legend of the invisible city of Kitesh" 
N9139. „Legende de la ville invisible de Kitej." 

Il58| Maestoso. 


^ N? 140. "The Legend of the invisible city of Kitesh: 

N9140. ,,Legende de la ville invisible de Kitej" 

|248| (Larghetto alia breve, jl: 52.) 



N9 141. ''The Tsar's Bride! 
N9141.,.La Fiancee du Tsar.' 

|50| Allegretio. J = ii2. 


















N ^ 


. i /:^;^ 


J i J J 







'or. •' 

T- — ^ 







Jy^ Sopr. Alti. 



/f. bopr. Aiti. ^^^^ ^ 



■ *■' J 

blon vert q\u grim - 



Sur les bords du clair ruis 

■' r 

le hou 


Sur les bords du clair ruis - 


le hou - blon vert qui grim 





N? 142. "The Tsar's Bride" (p.S47). 
N9142. „La Fiancee du Tsar" (p.«7;. 

^Moderate, j; 86.) 

N? 143 ''The Christmas Ntjorht/' 
N9l43.„La Nuit de Noel'.' ' 


165| Adagio. J -. 56 
Fl.I. II. 

dim. poro a poco 

*)A defkut, clochettes; sur le celesta, jouer a 1' octave inferieure,oniett«mt la premiere note IN.dn 
"* Feed.) 

^ A Fl.picc. 






Fl.I. ill. 





//*;« . 

smorx . 



ii hi 












l-.fej f:jzffe 






> M 1 

M I M r t jjzi:, j^Lo^^j^ 

di?n. poco a poco 
4 .'iol.I. *• 1^ 





** 2VJ01.*' 

<2 — . ^- 



^^^N9 144. ''Sadko" (p. 121) woodwind alone). 

N?144. „Sadko" fp. \2\\ instruments a vent seuls). 

(Andante. J: 72.) 


if? 145. ''Sadko." 

. ,N9145. „Sadko!' 

l242jAndantino. J = 66. 


N9 146. ''The Legend of the invisible city of Kiteshf' 
NO 146. ^^Legende de la ville invisible de Kitej." 

[IS (Larghetto alia breve. J =62.) 



150 iV? i4t "The Golden Cockerel^ 
. N9147. „Le Coq d'Or" 

[233] ' Allegro alia marcia. J = 120.) 

iV? 148. "Russian Easter Fete"' (p.H). 
N?148.„La Grande Paque Russe" (p.ii). 
objAndante lugubre. (J .- so) 


I N9149. "The Legend of Tsar Saltan!* 

N9149. ,,Legende du Tsar Saltan'/ 

(Moderate assai. J: 84.) 



Lalumiere augmente. Les rayons du jour per9ant les brumes du matin revelent la ville de Le- 


ty V-c.e C-b. 



N? 150. ''The Legend of Tsar Saltan" (p.;Si9). 
N9 150. „L^gen(le du Tsar Saltan" (p. 219). 




J f I' ' 

i'""^'[iijjTi^ I giF jfn iLiutujIiiLrtiif 



N9 iSl "Antar" 

„ N?151.„Antar." 
m (A llegro.) 


154 N^ 152. "Antar: 

,pl, (Adagio.) 


N? 153. ''The Christmas Night'' (p. 376). 
N9l53.„La Nuit de Noel" (p.37K). 
Andante, tenuto ass'ai. 



p cresc. 
(Un soleil rouge se montre a travers lea brouillards places') 

2 Viol 

p cresc 


PiU mOSSO. i)l44. (J: 72.) 










A- D f 


N? 154. ''Sadko." 


Gloireau bon vieil-lard, gloire a ce bien - - fai - teur. 

3 Fl 

N9 155. "Servilia 
N9155. „Servilia!' 

J : 72. 

leo N*^ 156. *'The Legend of the invisible city of Kite sh" (p. 252). 
N9156. „Legende de la ville invisible de Kitej" (p 2f>2) 


(Andante mistico. J:«a) 

ritcn. molto 

N9 158. ''Ivan the Terrible," Act J. 
N9l58.„La Pskovitaine" W acte. 

""fi. Adagio. 


Je voiis par-leTai(lupreuxpa>la-din Oo-ri-nia, du ser-pent cru - el, Tou- 


^ poco cresc. W ^n. e mor 
JlJ- ^ 



poco cresc. 




dm. e mor. 

J^-^ dim.e mor. 


162 ^ iS9. "Snegourotchka" (p. £28). 
N?159.„Sniegourotchka" (p. 228). 
(Allegro moderato.) 








N9 160. "Sadko" (p.231) 

^; (Allegro non troppo.) 

Les devins (mysterieusement) 

•^ Sur lamer, sur To-ce-an, dansune i - - "le mys - te-ri-eu-se fleu- 

con sord. 

' A I 

Les devins. i j 1 

j k'' J J -^^ J^ I J_ 4viv^ J^ 1 ,1 ^_ I y J' J' ^ j^ 

rit la for-ce qui ue nieurtpas. la force 


N? 161. "The Legend of Tsar Saltan" (p. so). 
N9161.„Legende du Tsar Saltan" (p. 80). 
Ob. (Allegro. Jiiae) 



f^_ f r f _f_p r ■ gjLA^ e-jL^ ^ r f r f ^ f f r ^ r f r r r r r r ^ n 

Ha - ha - hii - ha - ha - ha - ha - ha - ha - ha - ha - ha - ha - ha - ha - ha! 

J? 162. "The Legend of Tsar Saltan'' (p.92). 
N9l62.„Legende du Tsar Saltan" (p. 9a). 
Fi. (Andante. Jzea) 

N? 163. "The Legend of , the invisible city of Kiteshi 
_ N9163. „Legende de la ville invisible de Kitej" 

O b. Allegro. J-.\zo. 

IQA N9 J64. "The Legend of the invisible city of KitesH' (f.ioo). 
N9164. jjLegende dela ville invisible de Kitej" (p.40o>. 

lis sont de - ve-nus sol- dais du Christ, des mar-tyrs s^en- ri-du - ra Tar 

N? 165. "The May Night/' Act I (p. 105). 
[Eg N9165. „La Nuit de Mai" l«Jacte (p.ios). 

T^Jv. (Allegretto.) 

> i/p 

N9 166. ''Snegourotchka: 
N9166. „Sniegourotchka!' 

Maestoso. <J: 69. 

rI.II. a 2 


166 N9 167. "The Christmas Night/ 

N9167. „La Nuit de Noel" 

\ tit\r \ Andante. J =72. ^ 





3 Fl. 

n.iil. fi: 

* I "■ 111- 









ob. n. 


//l^Clar. picc.(D) 

^2 Cl.(B) 



N? 168. ''Sadkor 
N9168. „Sadkof' 
(Andantino. J- = 66.) 





T dtm. 

N° 169. "Sadko" (p. 49^) 
N9169. „Sadko"(p.492). 
(Andante. J: 66. 



N9 no, "SadkoP 

12441 ( Andantino. J.= c&) 



N? 171. "Antar! 
N9171. ,.Antar 

N9 172. "The Tsar's Bride" (p.J852). 
N9 172. „La Fiancee du Tsar" ( p. 252V 
01. (Moderate. J c 9G.) ^ ^ ^^^^ 






ir — z? 






yVt »« . 

m 173. ''Sadko'' {f.ii2). 



179 N? 174. "The Christmas Night." 
P-J^ N9174. „La Nuit de Noel" 

ri.pi«e,« » ri 

N? 1759 "Vera Scheloga" (p. 49). 

N?175.a. „La BoiarineVera Cheloga"(p.49). 


pten. ass at 



quel mal - heur' Oi- seau^pourquoi te tai - re? 


Je cherche en 

vain, ne trou-ve pas ma rou-te, je. ne sais plus que faire, et je m?e-ga-re. 

N° 175? Another possible orchestration. 
N9 175. b. Autre orchestration possible. 


" J^ J^ iiJ' hi-l » J^ J^ J' J^ J i I p iiJw ■ V JO i J^ 

quel mal - heurl 0i-8eau,poxirquoi te tai - re? 

rT\ t^n. assai 

Je cherche en 

vain, ne trou-ve pats ma rou-te, je ne sais plus quefaire, et je m'e- ga-re. 

N? m. "Russian Easter Fete" (p. 5). 
176 ^9176. „La Grande Paque Russe'* (p.5). 
(Lento mistico. J =84^ 


J — 




—f -f — 


f k, 1 


■ 1 

' i> f ►f ■■ tt r i> r 1* 1 

V-c. «olo. 



> <t ^^ 





N9 177. ''Russian Easter Fete" (p. 9). 
N9177. >,La Grancle Paque Russe" (p.9) 
(Lento mistico. J = 84.) 

— timile 


^^^ N9 178, "The Tsar's Bride" (p.i-s). 
N9178. „La Fiancee du Tsar" (p. 1-2). 
Jlj^Allegrro. J = 108.) 

N? 179. ''The Tsar's Bride: 

NO 179. „La Fiancee du Tsan" 

S (Allegro. J -- 108.) ^ \^rf^ ^^^^ 

N9 180. "The Tsar's Bride." 
N9180. „La Fiancee du Tsar." 
m (Allegro. J = 102.) 

y Fl.picc. 


N9 181. ''The Tsar's Bride!' 

180 N9181. „La Fiancee du Tsarf' 

[2] (Allegro. J -. 102) 

N9 182. "The Legend of Tsar Saltan.' 
N? 182. „Legende du Tsar Saltanf 
RH Modei'ato alia marcia. w : 88. 

' l; r " T " 'c; " t " t " u r '" lj r 
Vr — ^ r ^ r r r — r 

N? 183. "The Legend of Tsar Saltan/ 
N9183. „Leg:ende du Tsar Saltan" 
Moderate allamarcia. J -88. 



<?/• y 

N° 184. "The Legend of Tsar Saltan. 

1^2 N9184. „Legende du Tsar Saltan" 
ljS[ Allegretto alia marcia. J = 96. 

f I plcc. 

J33- J J5L » i ^ p . n \m .JD . IT 1» m . jn . n \m J!L P f J^f f ^ f 


N? 185. "The Legend of Tsar Saltan." 

N9185. „Legende du Tsar Saltan!' 
Allegretto alia marcia. J = 96. 


r r ' r r 

n areata 

N? 186. "The Legend of Tsur Saltan. 

N9l86.„Legende du Tsar Saltan." 
3 (Allegretto alia marcia. J- 96^ 


^ N9 187. "The Legend of Tsar Saltan" (p.soey 
N9187. „Legende du Tsar Saltan" 'psoei. 
4Cor(Allegro tempestoso. J- 132) 

-va ge tren - te - trois puis - sants gu»T - j-rts 

^^^ N9 188. ''The Legend of Tsar Saltan" (p. 4f€). 
N?188.„Leg:ende du Tsar Saltan" (py*i»i). 
(Allegro animate. *-i44.y 


Tr-bni. e Tuba 



i ^ 


i n HJ 

J i 



N? 189. "The Legend of Tsar Saltan" (p. 367). 

N9189. „Legende du Tsar Saltan''^ (p.367). 
(Allegr o. J- 132 .) 





eTuba. K ^ » 

f- — -^ r r 




Viol. I e II 

N9 190. "Ivan the Terrible," overtun. 
N9190. „La Pskovitaine"ouverture. 
la (Allegro.) 



N? 191. 'Ivan the Terrible," overture. 
^ N9191. „La Pskovitaine" ouverture. 
(Allegro) —5, 

N? 192. 'Sheherazade" ($.5) 
188 N9l92.„Sheherazade" (p.S). 
(Alleg ro non tr oppa J..56.) 

i^? 193. "Sheherazade" (p.a) 
N9193. „Sheherazade" (p,8). 
A ^^ CAlIegTo non troppo. J.-56) 

N? 194. ''Sheherazade" (p. 19). 
N'M94.„Sheherazacle" fpiw). 

[S] ^Allegro non troppo. d.. 56.) 
^, ''c-- — —————— — ^ tf 

Fl.picc. *£^ >♦• 


^? 195. "Sheherazade" (f. 38-89). 

190 N?195.„Sheherazade" (p. 38-39). 

(Allegro non troppo. d.-56) 

N? 196. ''The Legend of the invisible city of Kiteshr 
N9196. „Legende de la ville invisible de Kitejl' 
(Poco larghetto. J -60.) 


192 NO igf rrj^ Legend of the invisible city of Kitesh.' 

N?l97. „Legende de la ville invisible de Kitej!' 
(Poco larghetto. J-6o) 

NP m. 'The Legend of the inmisible city of Kitesh!' 

N?198. jiLeg^ende dela ville invisible de Kitej" 
(Poco lararhetto. J. 60. 


N9 199; 'The Legend of the invisible city of Kitesh*' 

N9199. „Legende delSi ville invisible de Kitej" 
(Alle gro. «^.120.) ^ ^ 

iV*i"T I r f r J I i;_^ '~rj i 1 1 i i i"T i f^ 

N? 200. "The Legend of the invisible city of Kiteshi 

194 N9 200. vLegendc de la ville invisible de Kitej'/ 
[7q1 (Alle gro. Jriao.) 

i^? ^i. ^T^te Legend ofihe invisible city of Kitesh." 

N9 201. „Legende de la ville invisible de KitejV 
(Alleg ro J-120J 

N9 202. "The Golden Cockerel'' (p. 298-299). 

N9202.„Le Coq d'Or" ^p. 2i<H-y9^,. 
(Allegro alia marcia. J-120.J 

Fl.picc. ^ 


^96 ^ ^^ "The Qolden Cockerel^* (p. SOB-ssol 
N?203.„Le Coq d'Or" (p.ao9-8io>. 


N9 204. ''Snegourotchka'' (p. £67). 

N?204. „Sniegourotchka" ip 2K7.. 

(Vivace. J-I60.) 
Fl. pice 


N9 205. "Sadko." 
198 N9 205. „Sadko:' 
I173] Allegro. J..66. 
I!"!. piece 2 Fl. 

N? 206. ''Sadko." 

. , N9 206.„Sadkof' 

11771 Allegro. d..G6. 

Fl. piece 2F1. 


200 N^ 207. ''The Christmas Night." 

N9 207. „La Nuit de Noel!' 
|184| Allegro non troppo, alia polacca. 

ij ^ l h i 

pMj^^ ^^i^i^^^. 



•^ n,r cresc. 

N? 208. ''The Christmas Night." 
202 NO 208. .,La Nuit de Noel'.' 

|lg(-| (AUegTo non troppo, alia polacca.j 

Fl.piccjB- a ^ a £ # ^ ^f^ 

Bassi chaai-tez, trom-pet - tes, flu - tes 

dan3 la nuit ou point l^u- 


m 209. ''Sheherazade" (p. 123) 
N? 209. „Sheherazade" (p 123.) 
Andantino, allargando assal. 


I. Solo 


colla parte 

N? 210. ''Snegourotchka" (p. 176-177). 
N9 210. „Sniegourotchka" (p.i7e-i77.) 
Risoluto ed animato. <^= loo. 

Fl.e Ob. 

'^ fcrr^' ircrr*" ir* " r^i- ^^ 

e rr c rrri; 

Ar-j ^JnJ i ,^j I J ^^^1 ^i \ ,^ ^ ^ ^p i^jb^ ^ 

poco af>o co 


g__oiOier, la fa - rou - che cla - nieur de la guerre et de la ba 



N? 211. ''Snegourotchka" (p. 179-180). 

N9 211. „Sniegourotchka" (p.i7y-i80). 


^r -r 


i^7/li ^ u 


r "-f r r 









f. Cor. „ o ff 

I i '"'■II 


r ' r Cj r > 



J or I 





J JPJ j|j jj 


^J .a^ -^J 








Tr-bni. e Tuba. 




Ten. I 






it h'^f r ^> ^f r , rr7 r r f 


, ^f ^f f f f f 

»ii r r r r ^ j 


Y'T r r r r . 



''= i_i!Lii. 



rr r" r 

I r Lf r 
r r f\ \ 








N? 212. "Ivan the Terrible," Act U. 

N9 212^. „La Pskovitaine," 2^® ax:te. 
[l9| Allegro moderato maestoso. 

N? 213. ''The Legend of the invisible city of Kitesh: 
N9 213. „Leg-ende de la ville invisible de Kitejf 
2&4l Andante non troppo. (J = m.) 


Du fond de la clairiere marecag'euse,toute fleurie, s''avance^comme sur la terre ferme,nma^ du 

prince Vsevolod entouree d'une lumiore doree. II louche a peine le sol 





*** N? 214. "The Legend of the invisible city of Kitesh' 
N9 214. „Legende de la ville invisible de Kitejf 
fSjg] Andante non troppo. J=t»'. 

F^vrQoia et Tapparition sortent par le marais, effleurant a peine le sol. 

PP9 3 

2\? 215. "The Golden Cockerel." 

N9 215. „Le Coq d'Or." 
(Moderate . J= loo.) 



,«i I ■ '^^Vy»3 j »» J iJ vv JJi yv J i Jv » J J »» JiJ » » JJ » » J , J v ¥J#»¥3i j » » j J¥ » J 

H^44*m4 . 4H H44H » 

iy!" 2lV\negourotchka" (p.l4S). 

N9 216. „Sniegourotchka"(p.i48.) 

(Animato. W:i26.) 

He bien pre - nez, sivousrfavezpas hon-te d'etre enriohis pax lemalheurdesautrea! 

216 iV? 217. ''Russian Easier Fife.** 

N9 217. „La Grande Pique Russef' 




da Timpano 

r — r 



fiijj ■. i 


-B = 

-5} = 

-'i = 

-^ = 

1#=^ — = — 

< Arpa.^ 

/«f-^ = 


-« — = — 


p 1 

-f = 


P _ 




f F F F 


_■ — 1 — I — ■— : 


Viol, aemprep 

1 1 1. 

#^'i ■ 


\\ ■ 

= $=?= 

-? ■ 


5? — F 


-f — F — 

• • 

-f ^ 

— f « p 

r j> r f 

r r > r 

r f- r r 

*^^^^— ' if 


Mil r -- 

-0 « 

? ?5 

^^ ' r 

T — T — 

1 ' 

_i 1 

— « p 

^ /pirr.. 







N? 218. "The May Night" (p.i40). 

218 N9 218. „La Nuit de Mai" rp 140.; 
Allegro vivo. 

2 Fl.picc 

N? 219. ''The Legend of the irwisible city of Kitesh'. 

^ N9 219. „Leg-ende de la ville invisible de Kitej!' 
-^T-(Moderato. J=m.) 

ttfljfl Fag.IIeC-fa^. 

N9 220, ^'The Legend of the invisible city of Kitesh'.' 

N? 220. „Legen(le dc la ville invisible dc Kitej!' 

('Moderate. J; 92.) 
j.n. _a2 | «f^ 


N? 221. "The Legend of the invisible city of Kitesh." 

220 N9 221. „Legende dc la ville invisible de Kitej." 
rrj=i ( Moderato. Jzs-^.) 

N9 222. "Snegouroichkar 
N? 222. ..Snieg-ourotchkal' 

IB4I Lento. J = 69. 
ri. ptcc 




N9 223. ''Snegourotchka/' 
222 N9 223. „Sniegourotchka'/ 

12751 Adagio. Recit. 


< n^^ n ^^J\}^^^ 

A-vec le jour va com-men-cer le regTie 

"•^'w' "*" y " PourQuoitesBleurs et que veux 

Du dieu Ya-ri- lo, de I'e-te de flamme 

N9 224. "The Legend of the invisible city of Kitesh! 
N9 224. „Legende de la ville invisible de Kitej." 
Lento mistico. J:6o. 


N? 225. ''Sne^ourotchka/* 

224 N9 225. „Sniegourotchkal' 
, , Adacrio non troppo, lento e cantabile. ^z 7a. 

le 8o-leil sur lacol-li-ne de - crort len - te_ment, pa - lit et 


, v-i 

N? 226. "The Golden Cockerel." 

sss N9 226.„Le Coq d'Or!' 
LaiteinedeCh^ Lento non troppo. 


Viol. I. e II 
unis. fT\ 

Viens, la oal - me null re - pe - te la chan-son descoeurs en 



Allegro moderato . J : io4 

■+- f *-H— 

flS-te. Tiens,boisce vin tout pe-til-lant, o'est le sang .^ de lX)-ri-ent'. 

N9 227. miada," Act n. 
N9 227. „Mlacia;' 2"1- acte 
[li] (^Andante non troppo.) 



(muta sol in fa|) 

dolce colla parte 


836 N?^228. "The Legend of Tsar Saltan." 
N9 228. „Legende du Tsar Saltan'.' 

Andante. J= 68. 

BupalaiB sort la princesse Cypnejdontlasplendeur eclipse ceile du soleil. Tous protegent leurs yeux 
de la main. "" 



N? 229. ''The Golden Cockerel" (p. -227). 

N9 229. „Le Coq d'Or" (p.227.) 

Fl.picc . 



fij.£>^3mi,^ 'ig <^i I 

Cor. I. 


tou - jours, sans tre 


'1^4 p V I ^ 


Arpa. « 

H V 

; ^ Mr i f 


JPl pico 

N9 230. "Russian Easter Fete." 
N? 230. „La Grande Paque RusseJ' 
Sostenuto e tranquillo.eJzise. 


238 ^° 2^i- "^^ Legend of the invisible city of Kitesh'.' 
N9 231. „Legende de la ville invisible de Kitejl' 
12971 (Andante. J = 48.) 

Fl. piece Fl.L 

Arpa I. 

Spectre, tu parais porter les traits deVse-vo - lod le che-va 




cresc. poco 

284 N9 232. "The Golden Cockerel" (f. 282). 
N9 232. „Le Coq d'Or" (p.a82 ). 
(Allegro assai. Jzisz.) 


N? 233. "The Golden Cockerel" (p.l4ti}. 
N9 233. „Le Coq d'Or" (p.i4i ). 

Moderate (alia breve), '^.l . so . 
api picc. 

N? 234. "Sheherazade" (p. 61). 
N?234. „Sheherazade" (p.ei). 
(Vivace, scherzando. J • 132 ; 


N9 235. "Snegourotchka" (p. 807). 
N? 235. „Sniegourotchka" (p.307). 
Moderate. J-re. 

/J;P'««-|t^ . I,, 

La vision disparait; a sa plaoe on volt un tronc d'artre surlequel deux vers luis&nts 

p.^brillent conime line paire dyeux 


N? 236. ''Snegourotchka!- 

N9 236.„Sniegourotchka." 
(Larghetto. J-^ss.) 


rr pir^pr < pir'r p«r pir r^<- ■ 

3Ier - ci du fond du cceur pour - tant d'ar-dent a - mour — 








Viol.I solo. 

f rn-fif t f fif^ ^- if f 



¥» j . ^ i. 

dlv. arco 


I. J'^'' 












V V i' 


2C-b. soli. 

N9 237. "The Chrism tis- Night'' (p.Si^). 
N Q237. „L a Nuii de Noel" (p.312). 


N? 238. "The Golden Cockerel" (p. 19). 
N0 238. „Le Coq d'Or" (p.i9). 
(Andante, ^ 

1 i A Wl . p tc»^ 

ggg N9 239. ''Ivan the Terrible" Ad U. 
N?239. „La Pskovitaine," 2"ie actp. 

iV? 240. "The Tsar's Bridef 
fj^ N9240. „La Fiancee du Tsar." 

' — 5'j, (Allegro moderate. J mis.) 

i nJ^ J^ |t|J / i 

Oiii . . 

elle est belle 

rose et blanche de taint.. 

N? 241. ''The Tsar's Bride'' (f.2io). 

N9 241. „La Fiancee du Tsar" fp.^io). 

(Allegro moderato. J. iia;^ 


N? 242. "The Tsar's Bride." 
N? 242. „La Fiance'e du Tsar." 

^Lento. J- 56. 

N? 243. "The Tsar's Bride." 
N? 243. La Fiancee du Tsar. 


N? 244. '^Snegourotchka." 
^ ^^0 N? 244. „Sniegourotchka!' 

ISy Andante, molto sostenuto. J« i 

I N? 245. "Sne^ourotchka.*- 

I l313l ^^ ^^^ „Snieg:ourotchka!' 
^^-;:ji„ (Andante. J.«».) 


On rayon brillaot perce les brume matinale et tombe sur Sniegowrotchka. 

„ N9 246. "Serviliar 

^2 N9 246.„Servilia!' 
[g25!(Lento. J=6o.) 

N9 247. "The Tsar's Bride" 

m 247. „La Fiancee du Tsar" 

(Adagio J 


^ N? 248. ''Russian Easter Fite." 

W 248. „La Grande Paque Russe!' 
P] (Andante lugiibre. «J=6o.) 


N? 249. 'The Legend of the invisible city of Kitesh: 
N9 249. „Legende de la ville invisible de Kitej!' 
E (Larghetto alia breve. ^-Irea.) 

• - Cl.l.U (A) ^-' 


N? 250. "The Legend of the invisible city of Kitesh.' 
246 N? 250. „Legende de la ville invisible de Kitej!' 

Allegro . ^Jr 18 8 

Com - me monte au eiel le tour-bil-lonl La pous-sie - re voi - le le so - leil. 

N? 251. '^Spanish Capriccio/' 
N9 251. „Capriccio Espagnol" 

Met Sit mo 

•^ / 

N^ 252. "Sadko" 
N^>252. ,,Sadko:' 

12641 (Allegro non.troppo. J- 112.) 




N9^ 253. ''The Legend of the invisible city of Kite sh'. 
N9 253. „Leffende de la ville invisible de Kitej." 

Ob. I 


N? 254. ''The Tsar's Bride" (t.ZAe'H^r}. 
N? 254. „La Fiancee du Tsar'*^ (p. 246-247.) 
(Moderate. J = »«.) 

TVr 255. '"Sheherazade," 2^ movement 
N9 255. „Sheherazade;' 2"}" mouvement. 
[jpi (^Aiidantino,j)OCO animate.) 


N? 256. "The Tsar's Bride/' 
N9 256. „La Fiancee du T^ar " 
Molto andante. J = eo. 

A Nov-gDrod^ansun, sous les om-bragesnou8VHion8,en-sein-ble 

N? 257. ''The Tsar's Bride" (f. 186\ 
25qN'^257. „La Fiancee duTsar" (p i«<« ). 
(Andante. J = 9s.) 

sirtngentio foco a poeo 


m 258. ''Mlada'/ Act lU. 

N9 258. „Mlada;' 3"1« acte. 

IliJ Moderate, poco acceler. 

Fl. pice 


r ^^ 

(non stacc.) 


poco cresc. 






16 Viol, n div. 


poco cresc. 
(noil stacc.) 





pp poco cresr. 


ttf'tU ::r 


*** ttt- 

12 V-c.div. 


/?oco creirc. 



r.T .r 


' i r v«r ^ 

H C-b.div. 

^oco cresc. 







/oco cresc. 


Fl pice. 

Con moto 

PI. pice. 




.V" 259 "Mind a: Act III 
N'>;<J59. „IVIlada:' 3" acte. 

[19! Andante. 
Fl I. 

1.1. J. 

:i*?!au ij - 


M. 11 







Fl c-alto '(Ji 

jj^' 5fe 


;vv^ ^ - 



Oh. I. 




Ob. II. 



I^ J^' l r'r jC \ 


Ob. c -alto. 


fij- i' 




3 Clar. (B) 





3 Fag-. 




y^ i— HH 


3 Cor. (F) 
con sord. 














Tr-ba.c -altaCF) 


L" ombre de Mlada (mi mi que") :..Ce sont les voix prophetiqxies des esprits; ecoute-les!" 

Voix des esprita lumineux (derriere la scene) 

Coro.12-16 Soprani. 

j-4-/^ij J' l ^J^Jm^l y\ ;v p I r~pv^*' U' " i -J'T ''Hi't ^ri'*' ! 

Ya-ro - mir! 

Pour toi bien - tot _ 

8on-ne-ra I'heu-re. 


Poco acceler. 

■ ■ p' 

poco a poco 


Fl. pice. 

N9 260. "Sadko:* 

, And antino. J- -- ee 

(MS 1^*1 



N9 261. "Sadko." 

;i58 N?261.„Sadko!' 
Moderato. J = 96 

Piatti e 


Les eaux du lac 3' agitent; des profondeurs surgit le Roi des Mers 

>.^A^A-k< — kfc- — -Lfe — V^< — Vp:<A-^< 

■Al 1 p^ ' P P^ 1 p* ' p' P P 



div. ' 

^> e W* t i» - 
















































N? 262. "Aniar 

N9 262. „Antar:' 

(Allegro risoluto.) 




N? 263. "The Golden Cockerel.'' 

N9 263. „Le Coq d'Or. 


eresc. molto 
N9 264. "Pan Voyevoda," introduction (p. 3). 

N9 264. „Pan le Voievodel' introduction (p. 3). 

(Allegretto. J.: bs) 

2ez ^ ^^ "'^^ Legend of Tsar Saltan. 

N9265. „Legende du Tsar Saltan!' 

(J set) 




N9 266. "The Legend of Tsar Saltan." 

N9 266. „Legende du Tsar Saltan." 
EHJ (Moderato assai. J : %\ ) 

Fl.picc. .^^. — — — ^ . ^^ 


N9 267. "The Legend of the invisible city of Kitesh" (p. 4S8). 
N? 267. „Legende de la ville invisible de Kitej" (p.488;. 
(Moderato. J - as.) 

264 N? 268. "Kashtche'i the Immortal" 

N9 268. „Kachtchei Immortel." 
im (Allegretto mossx). Jiize.) 

.Cor. inpl. 

> Q j^j ^j Coro tdansles coulisses) La te m pete commence 

Gronile et souf - fie, tour-bil - Ion, cou - vre de tes blancs flo-cons 

Arpa (harpcs eoliennes) 

►Cor. in pi 

N? 269. ''Kashtchei the Immortal/' 
N9 269. „Kachtchei Immortel." 
[^HCAllegretto mosso. J: 126.) 




Arpa(harpe eolienne) 

(La scene dircouvre de nuages;furieu8e tempetei nuit.) 




^ ttJ. i^ ^ 








C b. 

J|. 3ZJ |. 


N9 270. 'Idlada" (p.iee) 

N9 270. „Mlada"(p.i66). 
3F1. fr ^ tr 


268 N9 271. "Tne Golden Cockerel." 

N':>271. „Le Coq d'Or." 
3^<'Moderato. J:ioo.) 

N9 272. "The Legend of Tsar Saltan" (p. 179). 

N9 272. „Legende du Tsar Saltan" (p.i79 ). 

( Maestoso, (i: 63 j^ . ^,_ — 

H^ QFl.picc. ^^^ ^^^-pc riten pace. 

N? 273. ''The Legend of Tsar Saltan" (p, 269). 
N9 273. „Leg:ende du Tsar Saltan" (p. 2b9). 

(Moderate assai. lf«') 



270 ^ 274. ''The Legend of Tsar Saltanf 
N9 274. „Legende du Tsar Saltan!' 

(J I . gg ) 

(Moderate assai. J.)" 



I : 'fi fflTJ^ 

Cor. ingl 

ff since. 


p-j t t j7 r^ 




, Cl.(B) . •'*' 

<9' f^' g' f'" » F » P =$?#= 

p. \' Y \' ^ ^x\\ 

Cl.basso(B ") 


r J^^'i f J 

J r r J 

w — r 

Fay. a 2 



Ji Ji I J j 


L/ACor. MI. 

i..JJ-Mf fJ_L^ B 

jjf ] jjnfr7n 






^ Vc. / 




'""j. Jl^i Qk J? 

C-b. / 



N9 275. ''Pan Voyevoda/' 
N9 275. „Pan le Voievode." 
(Larghetto, J. = 7e.) 



Quasi irillo. 

N? 276. ''The Christmas Night" (p,3lo). 
N9 276. „La Nuit de Noel" (p.310). 
(Allegro assai. J . les.) 


^' gUssando (sons harmonigues 


N9 277. ''Sne^ourotchkar 

N?277. „Sniegourotchka!' 
[45| Adagio. J: 50. 
.or. I. 

soir, le soir je chante - rai _ Jechante-raipoure-g-a^v-er laso-li - tude 

Poco piu animato. 

les plus guis de mes re- frains. Le beau Lei males ap-pren- dra. 

N? 278. "Sadko.' 
N9 278. „Sadko'.' 
(14 3i Adagio. J = 56. 



poco cresc. 

oya N? 279. "Snegourotchka." 
N9 279. „Sniegourotchka!' 

(Allegretto capriccioso.) 


Voi - la icon reve et mon ne piiis vi- vre sans chan- sons. 

uJ i P.i^P sT i Pypp 

Chan4«r,voi- la monseulbonheunma joi - - e! 
pizz. arcccN 

N? 280. "The Tsar's Bride." 
N? 280. „La Fiancee du Tsar." 

(Larghetto assai. J=60) ^^-— r==^r^i f= — ni r — i::::^ , 




N? 281. "Sadko'' (t.516) 
N9 281.„Sadko" (p.sie). 
( Passionate V^ -. 126.) 


• ^A Fi 

Etsousles ri - ves es- carpees je dor-mi- rai presdelai-me- Fi - dele amona-mourjusqu'' 

poco creac. 


la nndes temps. Oh! tes cha; ts di - vins ont se-dmt mon c(Kur, ra - vi inon arae- 

„co N? 282. "The Tsar's Bride" (p. 361). 
N9 282. „La Fiancee du Tsar" (p.aei). 


TLarghetto assai.) 


N? 283. ''The Tsar's Brider 
N? 283. „La Fiancee du Tsar." 
(Larghetto. ^ . 9Z) 


Pourcesbons voeux cent fois mer-ci, 

Domna Sabourova. _ 

' n ' <■ V » Jm J ' -I' -1^ -I * I 

Bon- heur aux a - mants! 


Dieu vous ac - cor - de joie- 


Que Dieu vous don - ne d'etre heu - reux, sans 

Viol P cantabile 





So-yez hen - reiix. toiuours u - iiis. 

jV Lilt 


fois mer-ci. 

tre - - ve- 

Dieuvous ao - oor-de bon-heiiret saii - te, 









N9 284. ''The Tsar's Brider 

N9 284 „La Fiancee du Tsar. 

S^ (Adagio. J.44.) 


All quels jours heu-reux. quy nous e - tions gais, quaiid thaque 

J^A V|'<>^' IJ- cop 8ord . 

ar - bris-sean a'in-cli-naitvers nous _ quand les' che - nee verts 

288 ^o 285. ''The Golden Cockerel 
N9 285. „Le Coq d'Or!' 

|l35l (Andantino. J = 76.) 
I Cor. ingrl 


Cl.basso(A). , 

^ 'til 


m . m 









'^'ll" ■■ jii ^ 






'J^p t 




^ ifr* . *• 


P''^ p p^'' p'p ''^pp^ •' P'P'^ PP ^> 'p " Pp ^ ^ 




La Reine do Chemakha. dolce 

Tffp P i f prrrr i r p^^pnp i r f^ ^ 

Vieiit-oii lattendre a la f«; - ne-tre, loeii at-ten-tif, le coeurtrem- 


ni^ ^ * J HiM t y t J H i t J t y^ .s 

, I. 


vie. p izz. ^^^ 








p ^^pp>^ [>'p ^'' pp ^< 



-blant? A pei-iie Ta-t-on vu pa- rai-tre, sait-on charmer rin,ureux a - mant? 

290 N° 286. "The Tsar's Bride." 

NV286. „La Fiancee du Tsarf 

(Lento. J. 63.) 

J aeceler^poco a poco 



'•''r r pir^t ir r p i rl!^> 

(EUe pleure) 


Ah! tout pour toi- 

oui,tout pour toi! 


^ ff 

S92 iV? 287. Z'Snegourotchka." 

N?287. „Sniegourotchka!' 
[SI (Allegrro moderate.) 

Jf. Cl.(A) '' 

Le Printemps 

,/ V-c 

Dans oes fo-rets ou I'ombre est e - ter-nel - le, 
V-c.e C-b.' pizz. 

au plus pro -fond dee 






Le Pr. 

^'^^i'j oip- J^J^-i'r ^piP'U V^^J^J^ 

bois toujours gla-oes, 

le pere en sou pa-lais re-tientma fil -le^ je lavoudraisheu- 

colla parte 

sf pp 

^<> J^ > ^^ p p ^p I p- p pM" P P N pp> * 'r 

-reused je Pa -do -re, II faat pour ramourd'el - le me sou-mettre 



-ys et de moi-mS - me^ il ne veutpasaudouxPrintemps de-der la pla - ce 

294 N9 288. ''The Tsar's Bride" 
N9 288. „La Fiancee du Tsar." 
l|24j Agitato. J= 136. 

>. Pl.l. 


jiaibienvul Mer veye debeaute . . . des:peuxsaper-be8, oer> tea U ^*- 

N? 289. "Sadko" 

N9 289. „Sadko." 

Larghetto. J. 56. 


N? 290. "Sadko" (p. iso) 
N?29G.„Sadko" (p.iso ) 
^ (Lar ghetto. J.= S6^ 




r f 7 

\a I^a Pr 





Sadko. Ton chant le - ger va s'e - pnndre sur les flots. 




pip P P P p^ 


Plei - n'j d"^ - toiles ta cein - tiire e - blou - it dans la nuit 

do^ce (colla voce) 

-^,hJ?^^- i 

-;> ,h^ ^- 

& ' t-^ f'r^-^ ' f— ^ 

N? 291. i'Sadko!' 
N9 291. „Sadko!' 
20^ (Allegro. J.: 66.) 



poco Crete. 

1^ r r f r-> »J I i .-r f i ll I'll ii I J J I J J tf ^1' r i 

Sadko^®^ ehants ont se - diiit mou coeur, comme ils ont ra - vi — mon ame. oh 

' I'll Tr f f-f iJ I .'"r F I I I fii i> J \l_i±lAi^ 

j^» r r < r'f «^ if 'r f i i n> i u ^i^^^ 


Ta beau-te se - duit mou coeur, ta beau-te ra - vit_ raon arae, oh 

poeo < 








bien - ai - me! 






bien - ai - me! 

N9 292. "Sadkor 

N9 292. „Sadko!' 

0* 13181 Andantino. i^r 104. 
, Cl. basso (B) 


Pau-vre veii-ve, je suis par les vents bat - tue et 


-e - e par tou-tes les pluies du — ciel. Oh, je suis la ri - se-e de 

tout chre - tien, la ri - see de tous les g-ens de Men- 

b f320] 


802 '^ 293. ''The Tsar's Bride'' (p. £69). 
N9 293. „La Fiancee du Tsar" (p i69). 

(Allegro. J > 120-182.) 

, Cl.(3) 

tiJ LL-LJ l''C !££ f^c^ r J lu l ''c !C£ r^Dg j ^ ' 


p i t, , jff] 



V'» t •'^•^ XM 

Sopr. e Alti mis, oreso. 

U J .^' )|J « Ji. O 


■ ■ 

Sig" - nons-nous tous, 
■ Basal. 

c'est un sor - oier! 

>j,AF- j^Mr i 


Viol.I e U 




cTMc. mo//o 

i» ertf»e. mo/Zo 

N? 294. "Ivan the Terrible," Act I (f. in). 
N9 294. „La Pskovitaine'/M'acte ip.ui). 




304 N? 295. "Sadko!' 
N?295. „Sadko." 
(Allegro. J = 126.) 

Sadko. [219 

Co lebrousleshautes voii - tes du fir- ma-ment. Ce- lebrons les a - bi- mesde TO - c^-- 

Piii anim ato. J =144. 


CBoBurll. Ce-le-bronsleshautesvoutes du 

Ten. Bassi. 

fir-mament.Ce-lebronslesa- bT-mesdelO - ce - 


N? 296. "Ivan the Terrible" Act II. 
N9 296. „La Pskovitaine" 2™* acte. 

Pa - te de- Pskov? 
|Sopr.I diy. 

poco c resc. 

Hein, quoi? 

I- If. f r PPjp i pfTn&fiF f r POM 

ASoorlldiv "*^ vo - yez: — vers nous sittJUi fier coursiersvient un no - ble pre 

|> \f i T~l&p f MP- p&f p f irn&f p f 

Mais vo-yez 

versnoiissur un fier coiireiervientun no 

blepreux ve - tu 

Wi -tu tfor bi&Iant. (forbriUantmarcheunno- ble preux ve - \\i 

d'or brillant, e-olai- 


'fa-Iv. "^°" " ^^"^ /^^ "*" ' ^^^ ' ^^^ • ^^ "'^ ho-tesbien sou-vent lesdi-sent bon-nes! 


-lar - de! Et fort bel-le; doc les fil-les i -ci,pous-sent com- me les mo • rilles? Chez 

1 8op> . • ■ -— — — — ^ 

-rsuit leoiel nu-a - geux et noirimaisil a fron-ce ses sour - 

cils e-pais 















V' p-pppr ^>r ^ 

r* - I ? 

g p 


i f Pi- - I 

greanafoifl[uimporte?P)EUsnousvi-si - te, 

et tu ver - ras bien 



• F • F 












so-leil,qiii sur nous flaniboie,gloir^a 

Ifem - pe-reur,auter-ri - ble Tsar! 



:j^ r^r^ -^ i 





'^'°' iJTJ rpJ^ l 




nu » 

SIO jv? 297. "Sadko" (p. 157). 
N9297. „Sadko" (p.157). 

(Allegro non troppo. j.: 112,) 


Alti Cygnesblanosdansle^biiis-sons en fleur, 

dis-persezvousde - plo 

-yez vos ailes 

pour oueil^lir de l^u - be - pi - ne blanche,par fu-mee au souffle prin - ta - nier. 





p i r pr PtHt' r r p'r p^ ^b 

rnon bien ai - me! 

mon pre- des - ti - ne ! 



pp pr »i^ ^ 

»- ^ ji 

pr pr ^ 

Vier - ge-qiii es - tu done? 

Qui es - tu, ma beaute? 


V-e. I. 

dolce C-b. 


N9 298. "Snegourotchka." 
N9 298. „Sniegourotchka:' 

Et toi ri - viere auxflots g:Ia-ces et cal 


m\A J .- 



1 J J J 


; J JJ JJ 1 Mil, 

sw-" -^ — 

■* -I ■' -^ •' •> J — j J |,J J J 


•••J--J -J- J--J ■ 

=^^^ — 



1 =:=pn 1 1 in — 1 1 1 

yi ^ _ _ _ ^ 

^ V.le. 

WiM' f f f f r w . 

1 — ^ d — "^ 

~T~1 1* [> iF 


1 J i t4^.J— 1 1 1-- 1 \ \ 


^-•m»-j 4 4 4 4 4 

Ob. I 



dors, en - dors ma honte et raa dou - Jeur 

Teii. dans ros de - raeu-rea pai-si - bles, nos fi) - les it; 

rent la hon 

cresc. poco 

Ob. ^ poco acceler. 

son db-ses-poir a tous nous fait pei - ne, son d^-ses- poij* a tous nousfalt pel 


N? 299. ''Mlada/' Act IIL 
N?299.„Mlada{' Snje acte 





Arpa I. p 

UJiJiJiJiUiJiJiJiJUJi^ ^ 




Arpa n. P 

'^ % r JjliJtLr Ir.fT ^ JliJ^iLr Ll^ ^ 


(eiur scene) 



N9 300. "Mladar „ ,, * i^§=^^^B-:V 
N9300. „Mlada!' n^ufis'deP^est 


N? 301. "The Legend of the invisible city of Kitesh." 
N9301. „Leg-ende de la ville invisible de Kitejl* 

rci.i ii.(b) 


ppW ^ 

Sampane. (boffuettes a tfite d'eponge) 


318 N? 302. "Sadko'.' 
N9302. „Sadk6" 

^ Ob.(Largo maestoso. J = 62.) 


Roidesmers tu asohoi-si maJ ton temps pour dan-ser! Vols la nier_ est sens des- 














P edale. 

*)Les passa^s en petitea notes ne sejouent que faute d-un or^e. 


-BUS — dessous- Elle ren - ver - se les plus forts vaisseauz.Ce jour in8-me la prin- 



8 J [8 J ^ 



r — f^ _ 

legato assai J J 







-ces - setafille i • ra a Nov(fo-rod poury de ve-nir unflexivelimpide.TV)i4«oen*umt«a 


fre noir. Va chan - ter" en ITion - near de tea Nov - go-ro-diens. 


N° 303. "Sadko" (p.378). 
N9303. „Sadko"(p.3/8). 
y/ji'i I. Andante non troppo. J = 88. 



Et "peutetre au ciel Dieu au - ra pi-tie du nous; — 

ra-me-nant a 1"^ - plo-ree son heu-reiixe - poux 

N? 304. ''Sadkor 
N9304. „Sadko'.' 

(Allegretto. J. = 73.) 


324 NP 305. '^The Legend of the invisible dty of Kite$ht 
NO 305. „Legende de la ville invisible de Kitej." 
(Moderato e maestoso. j=60.) 

Vo - yez les oha - su - bles blan 

ches> neig« aux ra • yons du so . 

Vo-yez les cha-su-bles blan 
Le PrYouri. 

ches^ neige aux ra - yona du so- 



leil d'^A - vril, qui d'a • me-res lar-mes sont batgnees, de tor-rents depleiu^,de. 

iM r7 Tr f' I r £r r r* >* r? 

mj frr^v \ r rr^ r 

#— ^ T-G^ 


r-'f r r r r 

leil d'A - vril, qui d*a - me -res lar-mes sont baignees^ de tor.-rentsdepleurs,de 


r rr i r'r rf ■) ir ^r ^ ^ ^ 

m rj 











Alk. - de paix, qui sont pr6 -pa-res en ee lieu pour toi 

Uadol- de paix. qui sont pre-pa-res en ce lieu pour toi 

Le Pr.Vs.te ments qui sont pre -pa-res en oe lieu pour toi 

NP 306. ''The Golden Cockerel'- (p.35i> 
N9 306. „Le Coq d'Or" (p 351). 

''Andantino. ^.= 96.) 


N9 307. ''Sadko'i (p. 210) 
N9 307. „Sadko" (p.2ioK 
(Allegro non troppo. j=ii2.j 
Ob. I. 

jl.i' ^ J^ 









Cor. P 







Tr-bni.e Tuba. 

1 ^^^^ 


No308.„Sadko" .p228K 





Ob. I. 


Cl.picc. (Es) 



i 444 ^H 

F.^- ;,^JTm 



-r: m ^ 



| jit>r^/^j^i,;f^/rj^ 




j ^ '^p ^ ^ ^ J^p ^ ^ -tl 

Cor. If 


u i 


J> ^ < }>'' 


y^pi^p^ij) j^^^^ 

. jj-Mais re-gar-dezdonc, a mes bons a- mis 


!>" V ^ h h K h fv 

■ ■ ■ 


Ha- ha-ha - ha-ha 

~, jm.-n>i-ii.i.-ii.i-im 



Ji Ji Ji J' || j> Jv 

ha- ha-ha-ha - ha - ha- 







Viol.-. -'^ 




5/" ^ 



y' ^ 



N? 309. "Ivan the Terrible" (p. lie). 
N9 309. yLa Pskovitaine" (p.ii«). 
(Andante sostenuto.) 

Or-donne< o 

Alti. ...--«....^< w 

•''tc, ~~^ 

mal - tre, et tous tes 

1^ J' ri J' 

or- dres se-ront sui 




^ i ^ 

j"-''!-! i v^i P g 

r p M P 

P P P P 


Or-donnCi o 

'Y \ }\i {■ (P [^ 

mai - tre et toiis • tes 

-r fi p p p 

or- dres se-ront sui 

r t^ p B p 


N? 310. ''Ivan the Terrible" (p. in). 
N9 310. „La Pskovitaine" (pii7). 

a ^i, 


Nous som - mes 



^HKl t fp ^ 

fai -bles, nous vou- Ions 

e - tre giii-des par 

p fl J-' p I r M^-JLf 

N9 311. "Sadko" (p. 44/;. 
N9 311. „Sadko" (p.44i). 
aFi (Allegro assai. J. 168.) 



U - ne 

lot - te 

tou - te pe - ti - te na-geait, s"a-mu - sant a tra- 


N? 312. ''Ivan the Terrible;' Act lU (the end). 
N9312. „La PskovitaineV 8^« acte (fin). 

(Andante maestoso.) 


Appendix. Single tutti chords. 

Appendice. Accords isoles en tutti 

,Fl.picc. 2- ii 3. 4. 5, 


J\e MoflfiglU 

La Null de Mai. 

p 3U 


La. Fiaii - 
cee du 
Tsar p 2*5 

La Fian- 
cee du 
T^ar, ? 2»8 

Tie r*ar* 
p. 301. 

La Fian- 
cee du • 
Tsar, p.soi 

The Taari Bride, 
the end 

p. S9J. 

Tk* L4gt*d of the m- 

vinble eitp of KiieA, 


Le^ende de la 
ville invisible 
de Kitej, p.87S. 

La Fiancee • Sniegouroteh- 
du Tsar, I ka, p.a»*- 

NOTK.IhesediagramM mr* given in tewtikrwe: They do not inelnde perciution itutrument* of indtterminMie mmnd or 

the human voice 
PJOTA. Ces exemples sont donnes sous forme demi-sehematique, en rondes. lis ne comportent ni les 
instruments de percussion a sons inddterminesi ni les voix humaineu. I 



Ivan the Terrible, 
p. 307. 

La Pskovitaine 

p. 207. 

Tk» Tfar'a 

end ofoverturt. 

La Fiancee 

du Tsar, 
fin de I'ouver- 

(he intrisibfe 

city of KHesh, 

the end. 
Legende de 
la villeimi- 
sible de Ki- 
tej, fin. 


The Christmas 

p. SSI 

La Nuit 
de Noel, 

p. 381. 


the end. 


the ena. 




^hi Legend of 
Tsar Saltan, 

p. in 

Legeude du 
Tsar Saltan, 

p 117 


the end. ■ 




No. 72, Suite No. 2, in B minor 


No. 1, Symphony No. 1, op. 21 
No. 2, Symphony No. 2, op. 36 
No. 3, Symphony No. 3 op. 55 (Eroica) 
No. 4, Symphony No. 4, op. 60 
No. 5, Symphony No. 5, op. 67 
No. 6, Symphony No. 6, op. 68 (Pastorale; 
No. 7, Symphony No. 7, op. 92 
No. 8, Svmphony No. 8, op. 93 
No. 57, Symphony No. 9, op. 125 (Choral) 
No. 9, Leonore No. 3, Overture, op. 72a 
No. 10, Prometheus, Overture, op. 42 
No. 11, Coriolanus, Overture, op. 62 
No. 67, Epmont, Overture, op. 84 
No. 91, 92, 93, Symphonies 1 to 9 complete, 
bound in halt linen, in 3 voliunes 


No. 88, Carmen, Overture 

No. 89, Carmen, 3 Intermezzi 

No. 68, Polovetzjan pances. Prince Igor 

No. 12, Symphony No. 1, op. 68 

No. 14, Symphony No. 2, op. 73 

No. IS, Symphony No. 3, op. 90 

No. 16, Symphony No. 4, op. 98 

No. 86, Acaclemic Festival Overture, op. 80 

No. 94, Sympboniei complete, botind in half 

No. 61, Espafia, Rhapsody 


No. 17, Afternoon of a Faun 

No. 73, String Quartet 

No. 18, New World symphony, No. 5, op. 95 

No, 90, String Quartet, op. 96 (American; 


No. 65, The Sorcerer's Apprentice 

No. 19, Symphony in D minor 

No. 20, Peer Gynt Suite, No. 1 

No. 23, Symphony No. 11, in G major 

No. 24, Symphony No. 2, in D major (London) 

No. 25, Symphony No. 6, in G major 

No. 26, Caucasian Sketches 

No. 29, Les Preludes 

No. 62, Second Hungarian Rhapsody 


No. 30, Midsummer Night's Dream, 

No. 31, Hebrides (Fingal's Cave), Overture 
No. 32, Wedding March 
No. 81, Three Orchestra pieces from 

Midsummer Night's Dream 



No. 33, Symphony No. 39, in E flat, K 543 

No. 34, Symphony No. 40, in G minor, K SSO 

No. 35, Symphony No. 41, in C major ■ 
(Jupiter), K 551 

No. 69, Don Juan, Overture, K 492 

No. 70, Marriage of Figaro, Overture, K 492 

No. 71, Magic Flute, Overture, K 620 

No. 80, Serenade, Kleine Nachtrausik, K 525 

No. 83, Polonaise from Boris Godunow 

No. 36, Cappriccio Espa'gnol, op. 34 

No. 63, Dance of the Buffoons from "The 

No. n. Flight of the Bumble-Bee from "Tsar 

No. 80, Scheherazade, op. 35 

No. 87, Russian Easter, Overture, cm. 36 

No. 37, William Tell. Overture 

No. 85, Danse Macabre, op. 40 

No. 86, Omphale's Spinning Wheel, op. 31 

No. 38, Symphony No. 8 (Unfinished) 

No. 39, Rosamunde Overture 
tNo. 40, Till Eulenspiegel, op. 28 
tNo. 75, Death and Transfiguration, op. 24 
tNo. 76, Don Juan. op. 20 

No. 40, Fire-Bird Suite 

No. 78, Sacre du Printemps 

No. 79, Petroushka 

No. 58, Symphony No. 4, in F minor, op. 36 

No. 59, Symphony No. 5, in E minor, op. 64 

No. 60, Symphony No. 6, in B minor, op. 74 

No. 95, Symphonies 4, 5, 6 complete, bound 
in half linen 

No. 42, Nutcracker Suite, op. 71 

No. 43, Marche Slave, op. 31 

No. 44, Cappriccio Italien, op. 45 

No. 45, Overture 1812, op. 49 

No. 74, Romeo & Juliet, Overture, Fantasy 

No. 64, Mignon, Overture 

Overtures and Preludes 

No. 46, Lohengrin 

No. 47, Tannhauser 

No. 48, Tristan and Isolde 

No. 49, Meistersinyfcr 


Na SO, Ride of the Valkyries 

No. 51, Wotans Farewell and Fire Magic 

No. 52, Siegfried Idyll 

No. 53 , Siegfried's Rhine Journey 

No. 66, Bacchanale (Venusberg) from 

No. 54, Oberon Overture 

No. 55, Euryanthe Overture 

No. 56, Freischuetz Overture 


E. F. Ka lmus Orchestra Scores, Inc., 209 West 57th Street, New York 

• This copy must not be sold outside of the United States. 

t These scores do not have to be turned upside down wtien rcadinp, as they are larger than usual size.